Bibliography - Stephen T Garner
- Zhou, W, Isaac M Held, and Stephen T Garner, March 2017: Tropical Cyclones in Rotating Radiative-Convective Equilibrium with Coupled SST. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 74(3), DOI:10.1175/JAS-D-16-0195.1 .
Tropical cyclones are studied under the idealized framework of rotating radiative-convective equilibrium, achieved in a large doubly-periodic f -plane by coupling the column physics of a global atmospheric model to rotating hydrostatic dynamics. Unlike previous studies which prescribe uniform sea surface temperature (SST) over the domain, SSTs are now predicted by coupling the atmosphere to a simple slab ocean model. With coupling, SSTs under the eyewall region of tropical cyclones (TCs) become cooler than the environment. However, the domain still fills up with multiple long-lived TCs in all cases examined, including at the limit of very small depth of the slab. The cooling of SSTs under the eyewall increases as the depth of the slab ocean layer decreases but levels off at roughly 6.5 K as the depth approaches zero. At the eyewall, the storm interior is decoupled from the cooler surface and moist entropy is no longer well-mixed along the angular momentum surface in the boundary layer. TC intensity is reduced from the potential intensity computed without the cooling, but the intensity reduction is smaller than that estimated by a potential intensity taking into account the cooling and assuming that moist entropy is well mixed along angular momentum surfaces within the atmospheric boundary layer.
- Trossman, D S., B K Arbic, J G Richman, and Stephen T Garner, et al., January 2016: Impact of Topographic Internal Lee Wave Drag on an Eddying Global Ocean Model. Ocean Modelling, 97, DOI:10.1016/j.ocemod.2015.10.013 .
The impact of topographic internal lee wave drag (“wave drag” hereafter) on several aspects of the low-frequency circulation in a high-resolution global ocean model forced by winds and air-sea buoyancy fluxes is examined here. The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) is run at two different horizontal resolutions (one nominally 1/12o and the other 1/25o). Wave drag, which parameterizes both topographic blocking and the generation of lee waves arising from geostrophic flow impinging upon rough topography, is inserted into the simulations as they run. The parameterization used here affects the momentum equations and hence the structure of eddy kinetic energy. Lee waves also have implications for diapycnal mixing in the ocean, though that is not a focus of this work. Total near-bottom energy dissipation due to wave drag and quadratic bottom boundary layer drag is nearly doubled, and the energy dissipation due to quadratic bottom drag is reduced by about a factor of two, in simulations with an inserted wave drag compared to simulations having only quadratic bottom drag. With the insertion of wave drag, the kinetic energy is reduced in the abyss and in a three-dimensional global integral. Deflection by partial topographic blocking is inferred to be one reason why the near-bottom kinetic energy can increase in locations where there is little change in dissipation by quadratic bottom drag. Despite large changes seen in the abyss, the changes that occur near the sea surface are relatively small upon insertion of wave drag into the simulations. Both the sea surface height variance and geostrophic surface kinetic energy are reduced on global average by more than twice the seasonal variability in these diagnostics. Alterations in the intensified jet positions brought about by inserting wave drag are not distinguishable from the temporal variability of jet positions. Various statistical measures suggest that applying wave drag within a fixed distance from the seafloor is not detrimental to the model performance relative to observations. The introduction of a novel diagnostic suggests that one way to improve the wave drag parameterization is to allow the vertical deposition of lee wave momentum flux to be spatially heterogeneous.
- Garner, Stephen T., January 2015: The relationship between hurricane potential intensity and CAPE. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 72(1), DOI:10.1175/JAS-D-14-0008.1 .
The theoretical minimum eyewall pressure of tropical cyclones can be computed from convective available potential energy (CAPE) if the buoyancy in the CAPE is allowed to feed back on the surface pressure via hydrostatic balance. The relationship between this so-called hurricane CAPE and the eyewall pressure is exploited by a widely used algorithm for hurricane potential intensity (PI). For the observed atmosphere, the algorithm is shown to yield significantly weaker pressure intensity (20-25%) and velocity intensity (5-10%) than the most familiar analytical formulas. This discrepancy is found to come mostly from thermodynamic approximations in the formulas. The CAPE-PI algorithm makes an adjustment to the hurricane CAPE by subtracting the environmental CAPE. Most of the environmental profile becomes irrelevant as a result. Other steady-state theories retain the influence of the full environmental column. The impact of this choice on the pressure and velocity intensity is analyzed. Another important choice, whether to allow the eyewall kinetic energy to contribute to the surface pressure perturbation, is also analyzed and quantified. The analytical expression for the velocity is updated with full moist thermodynamics and compared to the algorithm. The latter emerges as an excellent overall diagnostic of the underlying model. An exact algorithm for the velocity is also derived, based on its relationship to the radial derivative of hurricane CAPE. The thermodynamic efficiency often invoked to interpret velocity intensity is identified as a marginal efficiency measured at the point of maximum energy dissipation rate and is contrasted with the global efficiency, which has a direct connection with the pressure intensity.
- Trossman, D S., S Waterman, K Polzin, B K Arbic, and Stephen T Garner, et al., December 2015: Internal lee wave closures: Parameter sensitivity and comparison to observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 120(12), DOI:10.1002/2015JC010892 .
This paper examines two internal lee wave closures that have been used together with ocean models to predict the time-averaged global energy conversion rate into lee waves and dissipation rate associated with lee waves and topographic blocking: the Garner (2005) scheme and the Bell (1975) theory. The closure predictions in two Southern Ocean regions where geostrophic flows dominate over tides are examined and compared to microstructure profiler observations of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, where the latter are assumed to reflect the dissipation associated with topographic blocking and generated lee wave energy. It is shown that when applied to these Southern Ocean regions, the two closures differ most in their treatment of topographic blocking. For several reasons, pointwise validation of the closures is not possible using existing observations, but horizontally averaged comparisons between closure predictions and observations are made. When anisotropy of the underlying topography is accounted for, the two horizontally averaged closure predictions near the seafloor are approximately equal. The dissipation associated with topographic blocking is predicted by the Garner (2005) scheme to account for the majority of the depth-integrated dissipation over the bottom 1000 m of the water column, where the horizontally averaged predictions lie well within the spatial variability of the horizontally averaged observations. Simplifications made by the Garner (2005) scheme that are inappropriate for the oceanic context, together with imperfect observational information, can partially account for the prediction-observation disagreement, particularly in the upper water column.
- Wu, Liang, C Chou, C-T Chen, Ronghui Huang, Thomas R Knutson, Joseph J Sirutis, Stephen T Garner, and Christopher Kerr, et al., May 2014: Simulations of the present and late 21st century western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity using a regional model. Journal of Climate, 27(9), DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00830.1 .
A high-resolution regional atmospheric model is used to simulate present-day western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclone (TC) activity and investigate the projected changes for the late 21st century. Compared to observations, the model can realistically simulate many basic features of the WNP TC activity climatology, such as the TC genesis location, track, and lifetime. A number of spatial and temporal features of observed TC interannual variability are captured, although observed variations in basin-wide TC number are not. A relatively well-simulated feature is the contrast of years when the Asian summer monsoon trough extends eastward (retreats westward), more (fewer) TCs form within the southeastern quadrant of the WNP, and the corresponding TC activity is above (below) normal over most parts of the WNP east of 125°E. Future projections with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) A1B scenario show a weak tendency for decreases in the number of WNP TCs, and of increases in the more intense TCs; these simulated changes are significant at the 80% level. The present-day simulation of intensity is limited to storms of intensity less than about 55 m s-1. There is also a weak (80% significance level) tendency for projected WNP TC activity to shift poleward under global warming. A regional-scale feature is a projected increase of the TC activity north of Taiwan, which would imply an increase in TCs making landfall in North China, the Korean Peninsula and parts of Japan. However, given the weak statistical significance found for the simulated changes, an assessment of the robustness of such regional-scale projections will require further study.
- Zhou, W, Isaac M Held, and Stephen T Garner, March 2014: Parameter study of tropical cyclones in rotating radiative-convective equilibrium with column physics and resolution of a 25 km GCM. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 71(3), DOI:10.1175/JAS-D-13-0190.1 .
Rotating radiative-convective equilibrium is studied by extracting the column physics of a meso-scale resolution global atmospheric model that simulates realistic hurricane frequency statistics and coupling it to rotating hydrostatic dynamics in doubly-periodic domains. The parameter study helps in understanding the tropical cyclones simulated in the global model and also provides a reference point for analogous studies with cloud resolving models. The authors first examine the sensitivity of the equilibrium achieved in a large square domain (2×104 km on a side) to sea surface temperature, ambient rotation rate and surface drag coefficient. In such a large domain, multiple tropical cyclones exist simultaneously. The size and intensity of these tropical cyclones are investigated. The variation of rotating radiative-convective equilibrium with domain size is also studied. As domain size increases, the equilibrium evolves through four regimes: a single tropical depression, an intermittent tropical cyclone with intensity widely varying, a single sustained storm, and finally multiple storms. As SST increases or ambient rotation rate f decreases, the sustained storm regime shifts towards larger domain size. The storm’s natural extent in large domains can be understood from this regime behavior. The radius of maximum surface wind, although only marginally resolved, increases with SST and increases with f for small f when the domain is large enough. But these parameter dependencies can be modified or even reversed if the domain is smaller than the storm’s natural extent.
- Knutson, Thomas R., Joseph J Sirutis, Gabriel A Vecchi, Stephen T Garner, Ming Zhao, Hyeong-Seog Kim, Morris A Bender, Robert E Tuleya, Isaac M Held, and G Villarini, September 2013: Dynamical downscaling projections of 21st century Atlantic hurricane activity: CMIP3 and CMIP5 model-based scenario. Journal of Climate, 26(17), DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00539.1 .
Twenty-first-century projections of Atlantic climate change are downscaled to explore the robustness of potential changes in hurricane activity. Multimodel ensembles using the phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3)/Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B (SRES A1B; late-twenty-first century) and phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5)/representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5; early- and late-twenty-first century) scenarios are examined. Ten individual CMIP3 models are downscaled to assess the spread of results among the CMIP3 (but not the CMIP5) models. Downscaling simulations are compared for 18-km grid regional and 50-km grid global models. Storm cases from the regional model are further downscaled into the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) hurricane model (9-km inner grid spacing, with ocean coupling) to simulate intense hurricanes at a finer resolution. A significant reduction in tropical storm frequency is projected for the CMIP3 (−27%), CMIP5-early (−20%) and CMIP5-late (−23%) ensembles and for 5 of the 10 individual CMIP3 models. Lifetime maximum hurricane intensity increases significantly in the high-resolution experiments—by 4%–6% for CMIP3 and CMIP5 ensembles. A significant increase (+87%) in the frequency of very intense (categories 4 and 5) hurricanes (winds ≥ 59 m s−1) is projected using CMIP3, but smaller, only marginally significant increases are projected (+45% and +39%) for the CMIP5-early and CMIP5-late scenarios. Hurricane rainfall rates increase robustly for the CMIP3 and CMIP5 scenarios. For the late-twenty-first century, this increase amounts to +20% to +30% in the model hurricane’s inner core, with a smaller increase (~10%) for averaging radii of 200 km or larger. The fractional increase in precipitation at large radii (200–400 km) approximates that expected from environmental water vapor content scaling, while increases for the inner core exceed this level.
- Trossman, D S., B K Arbic, and Stephen T Garner, et al., December 2013: Impact of parameterized lee wave drag on the energy budget of an eddying global ocean model. Ocean Modelling, 72, DOI:10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.08.006 .
The impact of parameterized topographic internal lee wave drag on the input and output terms in the total mechanical energy budget of a hybrid coordinate high-resolution global ocean general circulation model forced by winds and air-sea buoyancy fluxes is examined here. Wave drag, which parameterizes the generation of internal lee waves arising from geostrophic flow impinging upon rough topography, is included in the prognostic model, ensuring that abyssal currents and stratification in the model are affected by the wave drag. An inline mechanical (kinetic plus gravitational potential) energy budget including four dissipative terms (parameterized topographic internal lee wave drag, quadratic bottom boundary layer drag, vertical eddy viscosity, and horizontal eddy viscosity) demonstrates that wave drag dissipates less energy in the model than a diagnostic (offline) estimate would suggest, due to reductions in both the abyssal currents and stratification. The equator experiences the largest reduction in energy dissipation associated with wave drag in inline versus offline estimates. Quadratic bottom drag is the energy sink most affected globally by the presence of wave drag in the model; other energy sinks are substantially affected locally, but not in their global integrals. It is suggested that wave drag cannot be mimicked by artificially increasing the quadratic bottom drag because the energy dissipation rates associated with bottom drag are not spatially correlated with those associated with wave drag where the latter are small. Additionally, in contrast to bottom drag, wave drag is a non-local energy sink. All four aforementioned dissipative terms contribute substantially to the total energy dissipation rate of about one terawatt. The partial time derivative of potential energy (non-zero since the isopycnal depths have a long adjustment time), the surface advective fluxes of potential energy, the rate of change of potential energy due to diffusive mass fluxes, and the conversion between internal energy and potential energy also play a non-negligible role in the total mechanical energy budget. Reasons for the <10% total mechanical energy budget imbalance are discussed.
- Mrowiec, A A., Stephen T Garner, and O M Pauluis, August 2011: Axisymmetric hurricane in a dry atmosphere: Theoretical framework and numerical experiments. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 68(8), DOI:10.1175/2011JAS3639.1 .
This paper discusses the possible existence of hurricanes in an atmosphere without water vapor, and analyzes the dynamical and thermodynamical structures of simulated hurricane-like storms in moist and dry environments. It is first shown that the ‘potential intensity’ theory for axisymmetric hurricanes is directly applicable to the maintenance of a balanced vortex sustained by a combination of surface energy and momentum flux, even in the absence of water vapor. This theoretical insight is confirmed by simulations with a high resolution numerical model. The same model is then used to compare dry and moist hurricanes. While it is found that both types of storms exhibit many similarities and fit well within the theoretical framework, there are several differences, most notably in the storm inflow and in the relationship between hurricane size and intensity. Such differences indicate that, while water vapor is not necessary for the maintenance of hurricane-like vortices, moist processes directly affect the structure of these storms.
- Spengler, T, J Egger, and Stephen T Garner, February 2011: How does rain affect surface pressure in a one-dimensional framework? Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 68(2), DOI:10.1175/2010JAS3582.1 .
The process of hydrostatic adjustment in a vertical column is discussed in the context of rain formation and sedimentation. We assume an event of instantaneous condensation in a mid-atmospheric layer which removes mass from the gas phase and produces latent heating. It is shown that the rain formation leads to a change of the surface pressure after a short period of acoustic wave activity. There is, however, no hydrostatic surface effect once the particles reach terminal velocity. It is not until the rain reaches the ground that the surface pressure decreases consistently with the mass removed by the phase change. Only the mass removal introduces perturbations below the layer of rain formation, where it acts to stretch the lower levels, reducing pressure and temperature. Above the layer of rain formation, the effects of latent heating dominate over the effects of mass removal by an order of magnitude. The hydrostatic adjustment time is found to be ≈ e2Na−1 (≈ 340 s, where Na is the acoustic cut-off frequency and e is the Euler constant) and is proportional to the temperature of the isothermal basic state. The energy distribution is found to be dominated by the latent heating. However, the mass removal significantly alters the amount of energy lost due to work done by the pressure perturbations. We discuss the implications for numerical modeling.
- Bender, Morris A., Thomas R Knutson, Robert E Tuleya, Joseph J Sirutis, Gabriel A Vecchi, Stephen T Garner, and Isaac M Held, January 2010: Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes. Science, 327(5964), DOI:10.1126/science.1180568 .
Several recent models suggest that the frequency of Atlantic tropical cyclones could decrease as the climate warms. However, these models are unable to reproduce storms of category 3 or higher intensity. We explored the influence of future global warming on Atlantic hurricanes with a downscaling strategy by using an operational hurricane-prediction model that produces a realistic distribution of intense hurricane activity for present-day conditions. The model projects nearly a doubling of the frequency of category 4 and 5 storms by the end of the 21st century, despite a decrease in the overall frequency of tropical cyclones, when the downscaling is based on the ensemble mean of 18 global climate-change projections. The largest increase is projected to occur in the Western Atlantic, north of 20°N.
- Garner, Stephen T., Isaac M Held, Thomas R Knutson, and Joseph J Sirutis, September 2009: The roles of wind shear and thermal stratification in past and projected changes of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. Journal of Climate, 22(17), DOI:10.1175/2009JCLI2930.1 .
Atlantic tropical cyclone activity has trended upward in recent decades. The increase coincides with favorable changes in local sea surface temperature and other environmental indices, principally associated with vertical shear and the thermodynamic profile. The relative importance of these environmental factors has not been firmly established. A recent study using a high-resolution dynamical downscaling model has captured both the trend and interannual variations in Atlantic storm frequency with considerable fidelity. In the present work, this downscaling framework is used to assess the importance of the large-scale thermodynamic environment relative to other factors influencing Atlantic tropical storms. Separate assessments are done for the recent multidecadal trend (1980–2006) and a model-projected global warming environment for the late 21st century. For the multidecadal trend, changes in the seasonal-mean thermodynamic environment (sea surface temperature and atmospheric temperature profile at fixed relative humidity) account for more than half of the observed increase in tropical cyclone frequency, with other seasonal-mean changes (including vertical shear) having a somewhat smaller combined effect. In contrast, the model’s projected reduction in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity in the warm climate scenario appears to be driven mostly by increased seasonal-mean vertical shear in the western Atlantic and Caribbean rather than by changes in the SST and thermodynamic profile.
- Knutson, Thomas R., Joseph J Sirutis, Stephen T Garner, Gabriel A Vecchi, and Isaac M Held, 2008: Simulated reduction in Atlantic hurricane frequency under twenty-first-century warming conditions. Nature Geoscience, 1(6), DOI:10.1038/ngeo202 .
Increasing sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and measures of Atlantic hurricane activity have been reported to be strongly correlated since at least 1950 (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5), raising concerns that future greenhouse-gas-induced warming6 could lead to pronounced increases in hurricane activity. Models that explicitly simulate hurricanes are needed to study the influence of warming ocean temperatures on Atlantic hurricane activity, complementing empirical approaches. Our regional climate model of the Atlantic basin reproduces the observed rise in hurricane counts between 1980 and 2006, along with much of the interannual variability, when forced with observed sea surface temperatures and atmospheric conditions7. Here we assess, in our model system7, the changes in large-scale climate that are projected to occur by the end of the twenty-first century by an ensemble of global climate models8, and find that Atlantic hurricane and tropical storm frequencies are reduced. At the same time, near-storm rainfall rates increase substantially. Our results do not support the notion of large increasing trends in either tropical storm or hurricane frequency driven by increases in atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations.
- Garner, Stephen T., D M W Frierson, Isaac M Held, O M Pauluis, and Geoffrey K Vallis, June 2007: Resolving convection in a global hypohydrostatic model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 64(6), DOI:10.1175/JAS3929.1 .
Convection cannot be explicitly resolved in general circulation models given their typical grid size of 50 km or larger. However, by multiplying the vertical acceleration in the equation of motion by a constant larger than unity, the horizontal scale of convection can be increased at will, without necessarily affecting the larger-scale flow. The resulting hypohydrostatic system has been recognized for some time as a way to improve numerical stability on grids that cannot well resolve nonhydrostatic gravity waves. More recent studies have explored its potential for better representing convection in relatively coarse models. The recent studies have tested the rescaling idea in the context of regional models. Here the authors present global aquaplanet simulations with a low-resolution, nonhydrostatic model free of convective parameterization, and describe the effect on the global climate of very large rescaling of the vertical acceleration. As the convection expands to resolved scales, a deepening of the troposphere, a weakening of the Hadley cell, and a moistening of the lower troposphere is found, compared to solutions in which the moist convection is essentially hydrostatic. The growth rate of convective instability is reduced and the convective life cycle is lengthened relative to synoptic phenomena. This problematic side effect is noted in earlier studies and examined further here.
- Knutson, Thomas R., Joseph J Sirutis, Stephen T Garner, Isaac M Held, and Robert E Tuleya, 2007: Simulation of the Recent Multidecadal Increase of Atlantic Hurricane Activity Using an 18-km-Grid Regional Model. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 88(10), DOI:10.1175/BAMS-88-10-1549 .
In this study, a new modeling framework for simulating Atlantic hurricane activity is introduced. The model is an 18-km-grid nonhydrostatic regional model, run over observed specified SSTs and nudged toward observed time-varying large-scale atmospheric conditions (Atlantic domain wavenumbers 0–2) derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalyses. Using this “perfect large-scale model” approach for 27 recent August–October seasons (1980–2006), it is found that the model successfully reproduces the observed multidecadal increase in numbers of Atlantic hurricanes and several other tropical cyclone (TC) indices over this period. The correlation of simulated versus observed hurricane activity by year varies from 0.87 for basin-wide hurricane counts to 0.41 for U.S. landfalling hurricanes. For tropical storm count, accumulated cyclone energy, and TC power dissipation indices the correlation is 0.75, for major hurricanes the correlation is 0.69, and for U.S. landfalling tropical storms, the correlation is 0.57. The model occasionally simulates hurricanes intensities of up to category 4 (942 mb) in terms of central pressure, although the surface winds (< 47 m s-1 ) do not exceed category-2 intensity. On interannual time scales, the model reproduces the observed ENSO-Atlantic hurricane covariation reasonably well. Some notable aspects of the highly contrasting 2005 and 2006 seasons are well reproduced, although the simulated activity during the 2006 core season was excessive. The authors conclude that the model appears to be a useful tool for exploring mechanisms of hurricane variability in the Atlantic (e.g., shear versus potential intensity contributions). The model may be capable of making useful simulations/projections of pre-1980 or twentieth-century Atlantic hurricane activity. However, the reliability of these projections will depend on obtaining reliable large-scale atmospheric and SST conditions from sources external to the model.
- Phillips, Vaughan T., Leo J Donner, and Stephen T Garner, February 2007: Nucleation processes in deep convection simulated by a cloud-system-resolving model with double moment bulk microphysics. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 64(3), DOI:10.1175/JAS3869.1 .
A novel type of limited double-moment scheme for bulk microphysics is presented here for cloud-system-resolving models (CSRMs). It predicts the average size of cloud droplets and crystals, which is important for representing the radiative impact of clouds on the climate system. In this new scheme, there are interactive components for ice nuclei (IN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For cloud ice, the processes of primary ice nucleation, Hallett–Mossop (HM) multiplication of ice particles (secondary ice production), and homogeneous freezing of aerosols and droplets provide the source of ice number. The preferential evaporation of smaller droplets during homogeneous freezing of cloud liquid is represented for the first time. Primary and secondary (i.e., in cloud) droplet nucleation are also represented, by predicting the supersaturation as a function of the vertical velocity and local properties of cloud liquid. A linearized scheme predicts the supersaturation, explicitly predicting rates of condensation and vapor deposition onto liquid (cloud liquid, rain) and ice (cloud ice, snow, graupel) species. The predicted supersaturation becomes the input for most nucleation processes, including homogeneous aerosol freezing and secondary droplet activation. Comparison of the scheme with available aircraft and satellite data is performed for two cases of deep convection over the tropical western Pacific Ocean. Sensitivity tests are performed with respect to a range of nucleation processes. The HM process of ice particle multiplication has an important impact on the domain-wide ice concentration in the lower half of the mixed-phase region, especially when a lack of upper-level cirrus suppresses homogeneous freezing. Homogeneous freezing of droplets and, especially, aerosols is found to be the key control on number and sizes of cloud particles in the simulated cloud ensemble. Preferential evaporation of smaller droplets during homogeneous freezing produces a major impact on ice concentrations aloft. Aerosols originating from the remote free troposphere become activated in deep convective updrafts and produce most of the supercooled cloud droplets that freeze homogeneously aloft. Homogeneous aerosol freezing is found to occur only in widespread regions of weak ascent while homogeneous droplet freezing is restricted to deep convective updrafts. This means that homogeneous aerosol freezing can produce many more crystals than homogeneous droplet freezing, if conditions in the upper troposphere are favorable. These competing mechanisms of homogeneous freezing determine the overall response of the ice concentration to environmental CCN concentrations in the simulated cloud ensemble. The corresponding sensitivity with respect to environmental IN concentrations is much lower. Nevertheless, when extremely high concentrations of IN are applied, that are typical for plumes of desert dust, the supercooled cloud liquid is completely eliminated in the upper half of the mixed phase region. This shuts down the process of homogeneous droplet freezing.
- Pauluis, O M., and Stephen T Garner, 2006: Sensitivity of radiative–convective equilibrium simulations to horizontal resolution. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 63(7), DOI:10.1175/JAS3705.1 .
This paper investigates the impacts of horizontal resolution on the statistical behavior of convection. An idealized radiative–convective equilibrium is simulated for model resolutions ranging between 2 and 50 km. The simulations are compared based upon the analysis of the mean state, the energy and water vapor transport, and the probability distribution functions for various quantities. It is shown that, at a coarse resolution, the model is unable to capture the mixing associated with shallow clouds. This results in a dry bias in the lower troposphere, and in an excessive amount of water clouds. Despite this deficiency, the coarse resolution simulations are able to reproduce reasonably well the statistical properties of deep convective towers. This is particularly apparent in the cloud ice and vertical velocity distributions that exhibit a very robust behavior. A theoretical scaling for the vertical velocity as function of the grid resolution is derived based upon the behavior of an idealized air bubble. It is shown that the vertical velocity of an ascending air parcel is determined by its aspect ratio, with a wide, flat parcel rising at a much slower pace than a narrow one. This theoretical scaling law exhibits a similar sensitivity to that of the numerical simulations. It is used to renormalize the probability distribution functions for vertical velocity, which show a very good agreement for resolutions up to 16 km. This new scaling law offers a way to improve direct simulations of deep convection in coarse resolution models.
- Garner, Stephen T., 2005: A topographic drag closure built on an analytical base flux. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 62(7), DOI:10.1175/JAS3496.1 .
Topographic drag schemes depend on grid-scale representations of the average height, width, and orientation of the subgrid topography. Until now, these representations have been based on a combination of statistics and dimensional analysis. However, under certain physical assumptions, linear analysis provides the exact amplitude and orientation of the drag for arbitrary topography. The author proposes a computationally practical closure based on this analysis. Also proposed is a nonlinear correction for nonpropagating base flux. This is patterned after existing schemes but is better constrained to match the linear solution because it assumes a correlation between mountain height and width. When the correction is interpreted as a formula for the transition to saturation in the wave train, it also provides a way of estimating the vertical distribution of the momentum forcing. The explicit subgrid height distribution causes a natural broadening of the layers experiencing the forcing . Linear drag due to simple oscillating flow over topography, which is relevant to ocean tides, has almost the same form as for the stationary atmospheric problem. However, dimensional analysis suggests that the nonpropagating drag in this situation is mostly due to topographic length scales that are small enough to keep the steady-state assumption satisfied.
- Anderson, Jeffrey L., V Balaji, Anthony J Broccoli, William F Cooke, Thomas L Delworth, Keith W Dixon, Leo J Donner, Krista A Dunne, Stuart Freidenreich, Stephen T Garner, Richard G Gudgel, C Tony Gordon, Isaac M Held, Richard S Hemler, Larry W Horowitz, Stephen A Klein, Thomas R Knutson, P J Kushner, Amy R Langenhorst, Ngar-Cheung Lau, Zhi Liang, Sergey Malyshev, P C D Milly, Mary Jo Nath, Jeff J Ploshay, V Ramaswamy, M Daniel Schwarzkopf, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J Sirutis, Brian J Soden, William F Stern, Lori T Sentman, R John Wilson, Andrew T Wittenberg, and Bruce Wyman, December 2004: The New GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2–LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations. Journal of Climate, 17(24), 4641-4673.
for climate research developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are presented. The atmosphere model, known as AM2, includes a new gridpoint dynamical core, a prognostic cloud scheme, and a multispecies aerosol climatology, as well as components from previous models used at GFDL. The land model, known as LM2, includes soil sensible and latent heat storage, groundwater storage, and stomatal resistance. The performance of the coupled model AM2–LM2 is evaluated with a series of prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) simulations. Particular focus is given to the model's climatology and the characteristics of interannual variability related to E1 Niño– Southern Oscillation (ENSO). One AM2–LM2 integration was performed according to the prescriptions of the second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II) and data were submitted to the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI). Particular strengths of AM2–LM2, as judged by comparison to other models participating in AMIP II, include its circulation and distributions of precipitation. Prominent problems of AM2– LM2 include a cold bias to surface and tropospheric temperatures, weak tropical cyclone activity, and weak tropical intraseasonal activity associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation. An ensemble of 10 AM2–LM2 integrations with observed SSTs for the second half of the twentieth century permits a statistically reliable assessment of the model's response to ENSO. In general, AM2–LM2 produces a realistic simulation of the anomalies in tropical precipitation and extratropical circulation that are associated with ENSO.
- Arbic, B K., Stephen T Garner, Robert Hallberg, and H L Simmons, 2004: The accuracy of surface elevations in forward global barotropic and baroclinic tide models. Deep-Sea Research, Part II, 51(25-26), 3069-3101.
This paper examines the accuracy of surface elevations in a forward global numerical model of 10 tidal constituents. Both one-layer and two-layer simulations are performed. As far as the authors are aware, the two-layer simulations and the simulations in a companion paper (Deep-Sea Research II, 51 (2004) 3043) represent the first published global numerical solutions for baroclinic tides. Self-consistent forward solutions for the global tide are achieved with a convergent iteration procedure for the self-attraction and loading term. Energies are too large, and elevation accuracies are poor, unless substantial abyssal drag is present. Reasonably accurate tidal elevations can be obtained with a spatially uniform bulk drag cd or horizontal viscosity KH, but only if these are inordinately large. More plausible schemes concentrate drag over rough topography. The topographic drag scheme used here is based on an exact analytical solution for arbitrary small-amplitude terrain, and supplemented by dimensional analysis to account for drag due to flow-splitting and low-level turbulence as well as that due to breaking of radiating waves. The scheme is augmented by a multiplicative factor tuned to minimize elevation discrepancies with respect to the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P)-constrained GOT99.2 model. The multiplicative factor may account for undersampled small spatial scales in bathymetric datasets. An optimally tuned multi-constituent one-layer simulation has an RMS elevation discrepancy of 9.54 cm with respect to GOT99.2, in waters deeper than 1000 m and over latitudes covered by T/P (66N to 66S). The surface elevation discrepancy decreases to 8.90 cm (92 percent of the height variance captured) in the optimally tuned two-layer solution. The improvement in accuracy is not due to the direct surface elevation signature of internal tides, which is of small amplitude, but to a shift in the barotropic tide induced by baroclinicity. Elevations are also more accurate in the two-layer model when pelagic tide gauges are used as the benchmark, and when the T/P-constrained TPXO6.2 model is used as a benchmark in deep waters south of 66S. For Antarctic diurnal tides, the improvement in forward model elevation accuracy with baroclinicity is substantial. The optimal multiplicative factor in the two-layer case is nearly the same as in the one-layer case, against initial expectations that the explicit resolution of low-mode conversion would allow less parameterized drag. In the optimally tuned two-layer M2 solution, local values of the ratio of temporally averaged squared upper layer speed to squared lower layer speed often exceed 10.
- Schneider, T, Isaac M Held, and Stephen T Garner, April 2003: Boundary effects in potential vorticity dynamics. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 60(8), DOI:10.1175/1520-0469(2003)60<1024:BEIPVD>2.0.CO;2 .
Many aspects of geophysical flows can be described compactly in terms of potential vorticity dynamics. Since potential temperature can fluctuate at boundaries, however, the boundary conditions for potential vorticity dynamics are inhomogeneous, which complicates considerations of potential vorticity dynamics when boundary effects are dynamically significant. A formulation of potential vorticity dynamics is presented that encompasses boundary effects. It is shown that, for arbitrary flows, the generalization of the potential vorticity concept to a sum of the conventional interior potential vorticity and a singular surface potential vorticity allows one to replace the inhomogeneous boundary conditions for potential vorticity dynamics by simpler homogeneous boundary conditions (of constant potential temperature). Functional forms of the surface potential vorticity are derived from field equations in which the potential vorticity and a potential vorticity flux appear as sources of flow quantities in the same way in which an electric charge and an electric current appear as sources of fields in electrodynamics. For the generalized potential vorticity of flows that need be neither balanced nor hydrostatic and that can be influenced by diabatic processes and friction, a conservation law holds that is similar to the conservation law for the conventional interior potential vorticity. The conservation law for generalized potential vorticity contains, in the quasigeostrophic limit, the well-known dual relationship between fluctuations of potential temperature at boundaries and fluctuations of potential vorticity in the interior of quasigeostrophic flows. A nongeostrophic effect described by the conservation law is the induction of generalized potential vorticity by baroclinicity at boundaries, an effect that plays a role, for example, in mesoscale flows past topographic obstacles. Based on the generalized potential vorticity concept, a theory is outlined of how a wake with lee vortices can form in weakly dissipative flows past a mountain. Theoretical considerations and an analysis of a simulation show that a wake with lee vortices can form by separation of a generalized potential vorticity sheet from the mountain surface, similar to the separation of a friction-induced vorticity sheet from an obstacle, except that the generalized potential vorticity sheet can be induced by baroclinicity at the surface.
- Garner, Stephen T., 1999: Blocking and frontogenesis by two-dimensional terrain in baroclinic flow. Part I: Numerical experiments. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 56(11), 1495-1508.
The shallow atmospheric fronts that develop in the early winter along the east coast of North America have been attributed, in various modeling and observational studies, to the land-sea contrasts in both surface heating and friction. However, typical synoptic conditions are such that these "coastal" fronts could also be a type of upstream influence by the Appalachian Mountain chain. Generalized models have suggested that relatively cold air can become trapped on the windward side of a mountain range during episodes of warm advection without a local contribution from differential surface fluxes. Such a process was proposed decades ago in a study of observations along the coast of Norway. Could coastal frontogenesis be primarily a consequence of a mountain circulation acting on the large-scale temperature gradient? A two-dimensional, terrain-following numerical model is used to find conditions under which orography may be sufficient to cause blocking and upstream frontogenesis in a baroclinic environment. The idealized basic flow is taken to have constant vertical shear parallel to a topographic ridge and a constant perpendicular wind that advects warm or cold temperatures toward the ridge. Land-sea contrasts are omitted. In the observed cases, the mountain is "narrow" in the sense that the Rossby number is large. This by itself increases the barrier effect, but the experiments show that large-scale warm advection is still crucial for blocking. For realistic choices of ambient static stability and baroclinicity, the flow can be blocked by a range like the northern Appalachians if the undisturbed incident wind speed is around 10 m s-1. Cold advection weakens the barrier effect. The long-term behavior of the front in strongly blocked cases is described and compared to observations. Because of the background rotation and large-scale temperature advection, blocked solutions cannot become steady in the assumed environment. However, the interface between blocked and unblocked fluid can settle into a balanced configuration in some cases. A simple argument suggests that, in the absence of dissipation, the frontal slope should be similar to that of the ambient "absolute momentum" surfaces.
- Garner, Stephen T., 1999: Blocking and frontogenesis by two-dimensional terrain in baroclinic flow. Part II: Analysis of flow stagnation mechanisms. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 56(11), 1509-1523.
Numerical solutions presented in a companion paper show that two-dimensional mesoscale terrain becomes a much stronger barrier to a continuously stratified flow when the flow contains warm advection. Here it is shown that this baroclinic enhancement is a strictly nonlinear phenomenon. The linear analysis indicates a weakening of the upstream response in warm advection. However, a weakly nonlinear analysis shows that baroclinicity facilitates blocking in warm advection by strengthening the nonlinearity in the cross-mountain momentum equation in such a way as to amplify the vertical shear on the windward flank of the ridge. This is enough to send the flow past the blocking threshold even when conditions over the mountain are too linear to produce wave breaking. A more intuitive mechanism whereby the upstream static stability is increased by the nonlinearity in the temperature equation is found to be much less important.
- Balasubramanian, G, and Stephen T Garner, 1997: The equilibrium of short baroclinic waves. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 54(24), 2850-2871.
The life cycles of short baroclinic waves are investigated with the intention of completing a simple classification of nonlinear equilibration scenarios. Short waves become important in moist environments as latent heating reduces the scale of maximum baroclinic instability. Long-wave life cycles (wavenumber 6) were previously found to depend on details of the low-level momentum fluxes established during the earliest stages of development. These fluxes also serve as a focal point for the present study. For a realistic, zonally symmetric jet on the sphere, the normal-mode life cycle of a short wave (wavenumber 8) under both dry and moist conditions is described. Latent heating intensifies the low pressure system and frontal zones but does not alter the broader details of the life cycle. The normal modes have predominantly equatorward momentum fluxes, in contrast to the mainly poleward momentum fluxes of long waves. The short waves are more meridionally confined. The equatorward momentum fluxes direct the waves toward cyclonic breaking. The feedback with the zonal-mean wind, the so-called barotropic governor, is less effective than in the standard long-wave life cycle, which ends in anticyclonic breaking. However, in contrast to long-wave life cycles that are "engineered" to produce equatorward momentum fluxes, relatively little potential vorticity and surface temperature anomaly roll up into isolated vortices. Therefore, the short wave undergoes protracted barotropic decay leading to complete zonalization. Short waves also have a brief period of baroclinic decay due to cold advection over the surface cyclones. Eliassen-Palm cross sections for the short-wave life cycles show the usual combination of upward and meridional propagation of wave activity. However, the meridional propagation is mainly toward the pole and there is a consequent zonal-mean deceleration at high latitudes. These details are included in the proposed classification of equilibration scenarios.
- Balasubramanian, G, and Stephen T Garner, 1997: The role of momentum fluxes in shaping the life cycle of a baroclinic wave. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 54(4), 510-533.
The wide disparities in baroclinic wave development between spherical and Cartesian geometry are investigated with the purpose of assessing the role of the eddy momentum fluxes. Differences are already significant at the linear stage, as momentum fluxes are predominantly poleward in spherical geometry and predominantly equatorward in Cartesian geometry. More important, the low-level flux convergence is displaced poleward on the sphere and equatorward on the plane. On the sphere, these circumstances lead to rapid poleward movement of the low-level zonal-mean jet. The anticyclonic horizontal shear region expands as the jet feeds back on the momentum flux. The wave breaks anticyclonically and quickly zonalizes. In the Cartesian life cycle, the equatorward displacement of the flux convergence is counteracted by the mean meridional circulation and there is consequently a weaker feedback with the horizontal shear. The wave breaks, in this case cyclonically, but then takes much longer to zonalize. On the sphere, the angular velocity gradient in uniform westerly or easterly flow adds a separate mechanism for converting eddy kinetic energy to zonal mean, further hastening the zonalization process. It is possible to change the sign of the eddy momentum flux and the sense of the breaking in either geometry by slightly changing the basic flow. For example, cyclonic roll-up on the sphere can be obtained by adding weak cyclonic barotropic shear, as highlighted in a recently published study. Similarly, the addition of anticyclonic barotropic shear in a Cartesian simulation leads to anticyclonic wave breaking. An easterly jet on the sphere allows cyclonic breaking, but the wave still zonalizes rapidly, as in the case of a westerly jet. The persistence of the nonlinear eddies in these diverse experiments is not well correlated with the minimum value of the refractive index for Rossby waves, as suggested in the referenced study. It is proposed that the longevity of residual vortices after wave breaking is determined not by the sign of the vorticity or the breadth of the waveguide, but by the sign of the momentum flux and the geometry of the model.
- Garner, Stephen T., 1995: Permanent and transient upstream effects in nonlinear stratified flow over a ridge. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 52(2), 227-246.
The "high drag" state of stratified flow over isolated terrain is still an impediment to theoretical and experimental estimation of topographic wave drag and mean-flow modification. Linear theory misses the transition to the asymmetrical configuration that produces the enhanced drag. Steady-state nonlinear models rely on an ad hoc upstream condition like Long's hypothesis and can, as a result, be inconsistent with the flow established naturally by transients, especially if blocking is involved. Numerical solutions of the stratified initial value problem have left considerable uncertainty about the upstream alteration, especially as regards its permanence. A time-dependent numerical model with open boundaries is used in an effort to distinguish between permanent and transient upstream flow changes and to relate these to developments near the mountain. A nonrotating atmosphere with initially uniform wind and static stability is assumed. It is found that permanent alterations are primarily due to an initial surge not directly related to wave breaking. Indeed, there are no obvious parameter thresholds in the time-mean upstream state until "orographic adjustment" (deep blocking) commences. Wave breaking, in addition to establishing the downstream shooting flow, generates a persistent, quasi-periodic, upstream transience, which apparently involves the ducting properties of the downslope mixed region. This transience is slow enough to be easily confused with permanent changes. To understand the inflow alteration and transience, the energy and momentum budgets are examined in regions near the mountain. High drag conditions require permanent changes in flow force difference across the mountain and, consequently, an ongoing horizontal flux of energy and negative momentum. The source of the upstream transience is localized at the head of the mixed region. Blocking allows the total drag to exceed the saturation value by more than an order of magnitude. The implication for nonlinear steady-state models and wave drag parameterization are discussed.
- Held, Isaac M., R T Pierrehumbert, Stephen T Garner, and K L Swanson, 1995: Surface quasi-geostrophic dynamics. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 282, 1-20.
The dynamics of quasi-geostrophic flow with uniform potential vorticity reduces to the evolution of buoyancy, or potential temperature, on horizontal boundaries. There is a formal resemblance to two-dimensional flow, with surface temperature playing the role of vorticity, but a different relationship between the flow and the advected scalar creates several distinctive features. A series of examples are described which highlight some of these features: the evolution of an eliptical vortex; the start-up vortex shed by flow over a mountain; the instability of temperature filaments; the `edge wave' critical layer; and mixing in an overturning edge wave. Characteristics of the direct cascade of the tracer variance to small scales in homogeneous turbulence, as well as the inverse energy cascade, are also described. In addition to its geophysical relevance, the ubiquitous generation of secondary instabilities and the possibility of finite-time collapse make this system a potentially important, numerically tractable, testbed for turbulence theories.
- Garner, Stephen T., N Nakamura, and Isaac M Held, 1992: Nonlinear equilibration of two-dimensional eady waves: a new perspective. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 49(21), 1984-1996.
The equilibration of two-dimensional baroclinic waves differs fundamentally from equilibration in three dimensions because two-dimensional eddies cannot develop meridional temperature or velocity structure. It was shown in an earlier paper that frontogenesis together with diffusive mixing in a two-dimensional Eady wave brings positive potential vorticity (PV) anomalies deep into the atmosphere from both boundaries and allows the disturbance to settle into a steady state without meridional gradients. Here we depart from the earlier explanation of this equilibration and associate the PVintrusions with essentially the same kind of vortex "roll-up" that characterizes the evolution of barotropic shear layers. To avoid subgrid turbulence parameterizations and computational diffusion, the analogy is developed using Eady's generalized baroclinic instability problem. Eady's generalized model has two semi-infinite regions of large PV surrounding a layer of relatively small PV. Without boundaries, frontal collapse, or strong diffusion the model still produces equilibrated states, with structure similar to the vortex streets that emerge from unstable barotropic shear layers. The similarity is greatest when the baroclinic development is viewed in isentropic coordinates. The contrast between the present equilibrated solutions, which exhibit no vertical tilt, and Blumen's diffusive frontogenesis model, which allows the wave to retain its phase tilt, is briefly discussed. The equilibration of two-dimensional baroclinic waves differs fundamentally from equilibration in three dimensions because two-dimensional eddies cannot develop meridional temperature or velocity structure. It was shown in an earlier paper that frontogenesis together with diffusive mixing in a two-dimensional Eady wave brings positive potential vorticity (PV) anomalies deep into the atmosphere from both boundaries and allows the disturbance to settle into a steady state without meridional gradients. Here we depart from the earlier explanation of this equilibration and associate the PVintrusions with essentially the same kind of vortex "roll-up" that characterizes the evolution of barotropic shear layers. To avoid subgrid turbulence parameterizations and computational diffusion, the analogy is developed using Eady's generalized baroclinic instability problem. Eady's generalized model has two semi-infinite regions of large PV surrounding a layer of relatively small PV. Without boundaries, frontal collapse, or strong diffusion the model still produces equilibrated states, with structure similar to the vortex streets that emerge from unstable barotropic shear layers. The similarity is greatest when the baroclinic development is viewed in isentropic coordinates. The contrast between the present equilibrated solutions, which exhibit no vertical tilt, and Blumen's diffusive frontogenesis model, which allows the wave to retain its phase tilt, is briefly discussed.
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