Bibliography - Yohan Ruprich-Robert
- Ruprich-Robert, Yohan, Rym Msadek, F Castruccio, S G Yeager, Thomas L Delworth, and G Danabasoglu, April 2017: Assessing the Climate impacts of the observed Atlantic Mulitdecadal Variability using the GFDL CM2.1 and NCAR CESM1 Global Coupled Models. Journal of Climate, 30(8), DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0127.1 .
The climate impacts of the observed Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) are investigated using the GFDL-CM2.1 and the NCAR-CESM1 coupled climate models. The model North Atlantic sea surface temperatures are restored to fixed anomalies corresponding to an estimate of the internally driven component of the observed AMV. Both models show that during boreal summer the AMV alters the Walker Circulation and generates precipitation anomalies over the whole tropical belt. A warm phase of the AMV yields reduced precipitation over western US, drier conditions over the Mediterranean basin, and wetter conditions over Northern Europe. During boreal winter, the AMV modulates by a factor of ~2 the frequency of occurrence of El Niño/La Niña events. This response is associated with anomalies over the Pacific that project onto the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation pattern, i.e., Pacific Decadal Oscillation-like anomalies in the Northern hemisphere and a symmetrical pattern in the Southern Hemisphere. This winter response is a lagged adjustment of the Pacific Ocean to the AMV forcing in summer. Most of the simulated global-scale impacts are driven by the tropical part of the AMV, except for the winter North Atlantic Oscillation-like response over the North Atlantic/European region, which is driven by both the subpolar and the tropical parts of the AMV. The teleconnections between the Pacific and Atlantic basins alter the direct North Atlantic local response to the AMV, which highlights the importance of using a global coupled framework to investigate the climate impacts of the AMV. The similarity of the two model responses gives confidence that impacts described in this paper are robust.
- Sanchez-Gomez, E, C Cassou, and Yohan Ruprich-Robert, et al., March 2016: Drift dynamics in a coupled model initialized for decadal forecasts. Climate Dynamics, 46(5), DOI:10.1007/s00382-015-2678-y .
Drifts are always present in models when initialized from observed conditions because of intrinsic model errors; those potentially affect any type of climate predictions based on numerical experiments. Model drifts are usually removed through more or less sophisticated techniques for skill assessment, but they are rarely analysed. In this study, we provide a detailed physical and dynamical description of the drifts in the CNRM-CM5 coupled model using a set of decadal retrospective forecasts produced within CMIP5. The scope of the paper is to give some physical insights and lines of approach to, on one hand, implement more appropriate techniques of initialisation that minimize the drift in forecast mode, and on the other hand, eventually reduce the systematic biases of the models. We first document a novel protocol for ocean initialization adopted by the CNRM-CERFACS group for forecasting purpose in CMIP5. Initial states for starting dates of the predictions are obtained from a preliminary integration of the coupled model where full-field ocean surface temperature and salinity are restored everywhere to observations through flux derivative terms and full-field subsurface fields (below the prognostic ocean mixed layer) are nudged towards NEMOVAR reanalyses. Nudging is applied only outside the 15°S–15°N band allowing for dynamical balance between the depth and tilt of the tropical thermocline and the model intrinsic biased wind. A sensitivity experiment to the latitudinal extension of no-nudging zone (1°S–1°N instead of 15°, hereafter referred to as NOEQ) has been carried out. In this paper, we concentrate our analyses on two specific regions: the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic basins. In the Pacific, we show that the first year of the forecasts is characterized by a quasi-systematic excitation of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm events whatever the starting dates. This, through ocean-to-atmosphere heat transfer materialized by diabatic heating, can be viewed for the coupled model as an efficient way to rapidly adjust to its own biased climate mean state. Weak cold ENSO events tend to occur the second year of the forecast due to the so-called discharge–recharge mechanism while the spurious oscillatory behavior is progressively damped. The latter mechanism is much more pronounced in retrospective forecasts initialized from the NOEQ configuration for which the ENSO flip-flop is still detectable at leadtime 4 year. Associated atmospheric teleconnections interfere worldwide with regional drifts, especially in the North Pacific and more remotely in the North Atlantic. In the latter basin, the drift can be interpreted as the model response to intrinsic atmospheric circulation biases found in the stand-alone atmosphere component of the model, which project onto the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. A fast adjustment (up to ~5-year leadtime) occurs leading to a rapid slackening of both the vertical (Atlantic meridional overturning circulation) and horizontal circulations, especially in the subpolar gyre. Slower adjustment of the entire water masses distribution in the North Atlantic then takes over involving several mechanisms. We show that a weak feedback is locally present between the atmospheric circulation and the ocean drift that controls the timescale of the setting of the coupled model biases.
- Ruprich-Robert, Yohan, and C Cassou, January 2015: Combined influences of seasonal East Atlantic Pattern and North Atlantic Oscillation to excite Atlantic multidecadal variability in a climate model. Climate Dynamics, 44(1-2), DOI:10.1007/s00382-014-2176-7 .
The physical processes underlying the internal component of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) are investigated from a 1,000-yr pre-industrial control simulation of the CNRM-CM5 model. The low-frequency fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are shown to be the main precursor for the model AMV. The full life cycle of AMOC/AMV events relies on a complex time-evolving relationship with both North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) that must be considered from a seasonal perspective in order to isolate their action; the ocean is responsible for setting the multidecadal timescale of the fluctuations. AMOC rise leading to a warm phase of AMV is statistically preceded by wintertime NAO+ and EAP+ from ~Lag −40/−20 yrs. Associated wind stress anomalies induce an acceleration of the subpolar gyre (SPG) and enhanced northward transport of warm and saline subtropical water. Concurrent positive salinity anomalies occur in the Greenland–Iceland–Norwegian Seas in link to local sea-ice decline; those are advected by the Eastern Greenland Current to the Labrador Sea participating to the progressive densification of the SPG and the intensification of ocean deep convection leading to AMOC strengthening. From ~Lag −10 yrs prior an AMOC maximum, opposite relationship is found with the NAO for both summer and winter seasons. Despite negative lags, NAO− at that time is consistent with the atmospheric response through teleconnection to the northward shift/intensification of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone in link to the ongoing warming of tropical north Atlantic basin due to AMOC rise/AMV build-up. NAO− acts as a positive feedback for the full development of the model AMV through surface fluxes but, at the same time, prepares its termination through negative retroaction on AMOC. Relationship between EAP+ and AMOC is also present in summer from ~Lags −30/+10 yrs while winter EAP− is favored around the AMV peak. Based on additional atmospheric-forced experiments, both are interpreted as the local seasonal-dependent atmospheric response to warmer North Atlantic. Finally, advection of fresher water from the tropical basin created by local atmosphere/ocean anomalous circulation on one hand and from the Arctic on the other hand due to large-scale sea ice melting leads to decrease of density in the SPG and contributes terminating the model AMOC/AMV events. All together, the combined effects of NAO and EAP, their intertwined seasonal forcing/forced role upon/by the ocean and the primary role of salinity anomalies associated with oceanic dynamical changes acting as an integrator are responsible in CNRM-CM5 for an irregular and damped mode of variability for AMOC/AMV that takes about 35–40 (15–20) years to build up (dissipate).
Direct link to page: http://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/results.php?author=4177