GFDL - Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory


NOAA GFDL Climate Research Highlights Image Gallery

Greenhouse Ocean Warming Delayed By Aerosols

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2-D Graphics & Maps

Contact information (email, phone numbers) can be found for these people by entering their names into the NOAA Staff Directory.

The materials presented here help illustrate some of the key research results that GFDL scientists have reported on recently. These graphics are considered to be in the public domain, and thus can be downloaded freely. We do request that if these images are used in publications or media broadcasts credit be given to “NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory” or at least “NOAA GFDL“.

2-D Graphics

[model-simulated Global Ocean Warming graph]
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Figure Caption:

Global average ocean temperature change from 1861 to 2000 (surface to 3000m depth).

Circles = observations.

Green triangles = times of major volcanic eruptions.

Curves = GFDL CM2.1 model results for different combinations of forcing agents.

ALL = All climate forcing changes are included (the model version designed to best simulate observations) Includes ANTHRO and NATURAL described below.

NATURAL = only includes volcanic aerosols and solar variations.

WMGGO3 = only includes well mixed greenhouse gases and ozone changes.

AEROSOL = only includes aerosol effects from human activities.

ANTHRO = includes both the WMGGO3 and AEROSOL forcing agent changes, but not NATURAL.

See Delworth, et al., [2005] for details.


[time vs. depth cross-section of model-simulated ocean warming]


ABOVE: 600 x 580 png [117KB]

Also available as:


Figure Caption: Time vs. depth plot of model-simulated global average ocean temperature changes in degrees Celsius (multiply by 1.8 for °F). Note the differing vertical axis scaling above and below 1000m. The upper panel (labeled AEROSOL) shows the steady downward penetration of the anthropogenic aerosols’ cooling signal over 140 years. The lower panel (labeled WMGGO3) depicts the ocean warming signal arising from the effects of well-mixed greenhouse gases and tropospheric ozone changes. The WMGGO3 warming is roughly twice the magnitude of the AEROSOL cooling, though cooling signals tend to penetrate deeper more quickly because of cold water’s greater density.