GFDL - Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

CM2M and CM2G

The Oceans and Climate Group at GFDL has recently developed two new global coupled climate models using two cutting-edge ocean simulation codes, MOM4.1 and GOLD and the atmosphere from GFDL’s CM2.1 model. The nominal ocean resolution in these models is one degree in the east-west direction and varies from one to ~1/3 degree in the north-south direction.

Key elements of the different models are listed below. Individual links below are to papers within GFDL documenting particular physical advances.


Breaks up the ocean into 50 vertical levels, with a resolution of 10m in the upper ocean and 250m at the ocean bottom.

Zstar vertical coordinate.

Neutral diffusion and GM skew fluxes

K-profile mixed layer scheme

Higher-order tracer advection schemes

Parameterization of the bottom boundary layer.

Real freshwater fluxes through an explicit free surface

Partial bottom cells.


Uses an isopycnal coordinate with 59 density levels and a four-layer refined bulk mixed layer.

Adcroft et al. pressure gradient formulation

Bulk mixed layer scheme with two transition layers.

Representation of narrow passages.

Jackson et al. shear mixing parameterization.

Fox-Kemper et al. submesoscale mixing parameterization.

CM2G 100 Year Mean Sea surface Temperatures

CM2M 100 Year Mean Sea surface Temperatures