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Research Highlight

A Simple Conceptual Model for the Self-sustained Multidecadal AMOC Variability

August 29, 2022 – Multidecadal variability of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) has been reconstructed by various proxies, simulated in climate models, and linked to multidecadal Arctic salinity variability. However, the mechanisms of the multidecadal AMOC variability and its two-way interaction with the Arctic salinity anomaly, as well as the factors affecting the periods and amplitudes of the multidecadal AMOC variability are not well understood from the theoretical perspective using simple conceptual models.

Research Highlight

A weakened AMOC may prolong greenhouse gas induced Mediterranean drying even with significant and rapid climate change mitigation

August 22, 2022 – Multiple large ensembles of climate simulations are used to explore 21st century climate response to greenhouse gases, including the response to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions after 2040. The authors explore the extent to which future climate changes could be reversed by reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. A decline in winter precipitation over the Mediterranean is a robust response to global warming across climate models, with significant impacts on agriculture and water resources.

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Sarah Kapnick named NOAA chief scientist

Sarah KapnickJuly 7, 2022 – Former GFDL scientist Sarah Kapnick, Ph.D. was named NOAA’s chief scientist today. Kapnick will serve as the senior scientist for the agency, advancing policy and program direction for NOAA’s science and technology priorities. She is the third woman in NOAA’s history to be appointed to this role. An executive with 18 years of experience at the intersection of climate science and economics, Kapnick was most recently a managing director at J.P. Morgan in the role of senior climate scientist and sustainability strategist for asset and wealth management.

Research Highlight

Substantial global influence of anthropogenic aerosols on tropical cyclones over the past 40 years

May 11, 2022 – Research reveals how pollution control measures in Europe and the United States over the past 40 years led to significantly decreased anthropogenic aerosols. During the same time period, economic and industrial growth in South and East Asia led to increased anthropogenic aerosols in those regions. The impact of these changes suggests effects on both the frequency of global tropical cyclones (hurricanes and typhoons), as well as a shift in the global wind circulation.

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Earth Day

Research Highlight

Regional Sensitivity Patterns of Arctic Ocean Acidification Revealed with Machine Learning

April 19, 2022 – Ocean acidification (OA) is a consequence of the absorption of anthropogenic carbon emissions and it profoundly impacts marine life. Arctic regions are particularly vulnerable to rapid pH changes due to low ocean buffering capacities and high stratification. This research applied unsupervised machine learning methodology to simulations of surface Arctic acidification using two state-of-the-art coupled climate models.

Research Highlight

Patterns and frequency of projected future tropical cyclone genesis are governed by dynamic effects

April 12, 2022 – Potential future changes in the genesis frequency and distribution of tropical cyclones are important for society, yet uncertain. Confidence in model projections largely relies on whether we can physically explain why the models projected such changes.

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Women’s History Month Spotlight: Elena Shevliakova

March 28, 2022 – When Elena Shevliakova came to the United States from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s, the scientific process provided a great source of positivity and empowerment. Shevliakova is a senior climate modeler of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in Princeton, New Jersey.

Research Highlight

S2S Prediction in GFDL SPEAR: MJO Diversity and Teleconnections

April 5, 2022 – Prediction on weather and seasonal timescales has become routine, but the “subseasonal” time scale of a few weeks has proven difficult. The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), a large complex of tropical thunderstorms, is the dominant subseasonal phenomenon over the tropics, and its prediction is critical for subseasonal prediction of tropical cyclones, atmospheric rivers, and other extreme events.

Research Highlight

Tripling of Western U.S. Particulate Pollution from Wildfires in a Warming Climate

March 29, 2022 – Record-setting fires in the western US over the last decade caused severe air pollution, loss of human life, and property damage. Enhanced drought and increased biomass in a warmer climate may fuel larger and more frequent wildfires in the coming decades.