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Earth System (ESM4)

GFDL’s ESM4.1 consists of:

  • AM4.0 atmosphere at approximately 1o resolution with 49 levels of comprehensive, interactive chemistry and aerosols (including aerosol indirect effect) from precursor emissions
  • OM4 MOM6-based ocean at ½o resolution with 75 levels using hybrid pressure/isopycnal vertical coordinate
  • SIS2 sea ice with radiative transfer and C-grid dynamics for compatibility with MOM6
  • LM4.1 land model with a new vegetation dynamics model with explicit treatment of plant age and height structure and soil microbes, with daily fire, crops, pasture, and grazing tiles
  • COBALTv2 ocean biogeochemical component representing ocean ecological and biogeochemical interactions
  • Fully Interactive dust and iron cycling between land-atmosphere and ocean