GFDL - Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

Larry Wayne Horowitz

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NOAA
Princeton University, 201 Forrestal Road
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
Phone: (609) 452-6520, Fax: (609) 987-5063
Email: larry.horowitz@noaa.gov
Web page: http://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/larry-horowitz-homepage

WORK EXPERIENCE

2008-present PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, Princeton, New Jersey
Lecturer, Department of Geosciences, Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
Course AOS 537 / GEO 537 (Atmospheric Chemistry)
2001-present GEOPHYSICAL FLUID DYNAMICS LABORATORY, Princeton, New Jersey
Physical Scientist

Leader, Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Group (since 2012)

My current research focuses on tropospheric trace gases and aerosols. I use global chemical transport models to simulate the chemical and dynamical processes affecting these species.

1999-2001 GEOPHYSICAL FLUID DYNAMICS LABORATORY, Princeton, New Jersey
Visiting Scientist, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, Princeton University
My work aimed to improve our understanding of the processes controlling tropospheric trace gas distributions. I used global chemical transport models to study the impact of chemistry and transport on ozone and related chemical species.
1997-1999 NATIONAL CENTER FOR ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, Boulder, Colorado
Postdoctoral Fellow, Advanced Study Program / Atmospheric Chemistry Division

My research focused on simulating the chemistry of ozone and related species in the troposphere. Using a three-dimensional global model, I studied the dependence of ozone concentrations on emissions of ozone precursors from anthropogenic and natural sources.


EDUCATION

1993-1997 HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Ph.D. in Atmospheric Chemistry/Applied Mathematics, Division of Engineering
and Applied Sciences, degree received November 1997.
Committee: Professors Daniel Jacob (advisor), Michael McElroy, Steven Wofsy.
My research focused on the tropospheric photochemistry of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and non-methane hydrocarbons. I have developed a photochemical mechanism describing the reactions occurring within the continental boundary layer and the global troposphere, for use in chemical models. Using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, I examined the impact of non-methane hydrocarbon chemistry on the global distributions of ozone and nitrogen oxides. Thesis title: The influence of boundary layer chemistry on global tropospheric ozone and nitrogen oxides.
1991-1993 HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Cambridge, Massachusetts
S.M. in Applied Physics, Division of Applied Sciences.

Emphasis on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. Additional courses in applied mathematics, including numerical techniques.

Summer 1990 WEIZMANN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE, Rehovot, Israel
Research on spectroscopy in molecular jets, Department of Chemical Physics, Karyn Kupcinet International Science School, funded to attend.
1987-1991 HARVARD COLLEGE, Cambridge, Massachusetts
A.B. summa cum laude in Chemistry.

Advisors: Professors Elias Corey, William Klemperer.

Extensive coursework in physical and organic chemistry, mathematics, and physics.


HONORS AND AWARDS

2012 Gold Medal, Department of Commerce
2009 Outstanding Scientific Paper Award, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research
2009 Silver Medal, Department of Commerce
2008 Administrator’s Award, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
2008 Editors’ Citation for Excellence in Reviewing, Geophysical Research Letters
2005 Silver Medal, Department of Commerce
1993-1996 NASA Graduate Student Fellowship in Global Change Research
1991-1993 Ernst Habicht Fellowship, Harvard University
1991 Elected to Phi Beta Kappa
1987-1991 John Harvard Scholarship, Harvard College, for academic achievement

TEACHING EXPERIENCE

2003-present Princeton University Visiting Lecturer, Atmospheric and Oceanic
Sciences ProgramAtmospheric Chemistry (AOS537/GEO537), graduate-level class
1992-1997 Harvard University Teaching Fellow, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences
Environmental Sciences, Professors Brian Farrell and Michael McElroy
Chemical Oceanography, Professor Heinrich Holland, graduate-level class
Atmospheric Chemistry, Professor Daniel Jacob
Environmental Pollution, Professors Raymond Siever and Daniel Jacob
Fall 1993 Harvard University Teaching Fellow, Undergraduate Core Curriculum Program
The Atmosphere, Professors Michael McElroy and Daniel Jacob
1990-1991 Harvard University Course Assistant, Department of Mathematics
Linear Algebra and Differential Equations, Professor Shlomo Sternberg
Multivariable Calculus, Professor David Kazhdan

PROFESSIONAL SERVICE AND AFFILIATIONS

2002-present Science, reviewer
2001-present Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, reviewer
2001-present Geophysical Research Letters, reviewer
1999-present Atmospheric Environment, reviewer
1999-present Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, reviewer
1999-present National Science Foundation, Division of Atmospheric Sciences,
reviewer
1998-present Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, reviewer
1998-present NASA Office of Earth Science, Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and
Analysis Program
, reviewer
1996-present American Geophysical Union, member

PUBLICATIONS

Barnes, E. A., A.M. Fiore, and L.W. Horowitz, Detection of trends in surface ozone in the presence of climate variability, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 6112-6129, doi:10.1002/2015JD024397, 2016.

Li, J., J. Mao, K.-E. Min, R.A. Washenfelder, S.S. Brown, J. Kaiser, F.N. Keutsch , R. Volkamer, G.M. Wolfe, T.F. Hanisco, I.B. Pollack, T.B. Ryerson, M. Graus, J.B. Gilman, B.M. Lerner, C. Warneke, J.A. de Gouw, A.M. Middlebrook , J. Liao, A. Welti, B.H. Henderson, V.F. McNeill, S.R. Hall, K. Ullmann, L.J. Donner, F. Paulot, and L.W. Horowitz, Observational constraints on glyoxal production from isoprene oxidation and its contribution to organic aerosol over the Southeast United States, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 9849-9861, 2016.

Liu, H., D.B. Considine, L.W. Horowitz, J.H. Crawford, J.M. Rodriguez, S.E. Strahan, M.R. Damon, S.D. Steenrod, X. Xu, J. Kouatchou, C. Carouge, and R.M. Yantosca, Using beryllium-7 to assess cross-tropopause transport in global models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4641-4659, doi:10.5194/acp-16-4641-2016, 2016.

Morgenstern, O., M.I. Hegglin, E. Rozanov, F.M. O’Connor, N.L. Abraham, H. Akiyoshi, A.T. Archibald, S. Bekki, N. Butchart, M.P. Chipperfield, M. Deushi, S.S. Dhomse, R.R. Garcia, S.C. Hardiman, L.W. Horowitz, P. Jöckel, B. Josse, D. Kinnison, M. Lin, E. Mancini, M.E. Manyin, M. Marchand, V. Marécal, M. Michou, L.D. Oman, G. Pitari, D.A. Plummer, L.E. Revell, D. Saint-Martin, R. Schofield, A. Stenke, K. Stonea, K. Sudo, T.Y. Tanaka, S. Tilmes, Y. Yamashitab, K. Yoshida, and G. Zeng, Review of the global models used within the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., doi:10.5194/gmd-2016-199, in review, 2016.

Parrish, D.D., I.E. Galbally, J.-F. Lamarque, V. Naik, L. Horowitz, D.T. Shindell, S.J. Oltmans, R. Derwent, H. Tanimoto, C. Labuschagne, M. Cupeiro, Seasonal cycles of O3 in the marine boundary layer: Observation and model simulation comparisons, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 538-557, doi:10.1002/2015JD024101, 2016.

Paulot, F., P. Ginoux, W.F. Cooke, L.J. Donner, S. Fan, M.-Y. Lin, J. Mao, V. Naik, and L.W. Horowitz, Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: Implications for present and future nitrate optical depth, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1459-1477, doi:10.5194/acp-16-1459-2016, 2016.

Schnell, J.L., M.J. Prather, B. Josse, V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, G. Zeng, D.T. Shindell, and G. Faluvegi, Effect of climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL068060, 2016.

Silva, R.A., J.J. West, J.-F. Lamarque, D.T. Shindell, W.J. Collins, S. Dalsoren, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, L.W. Horowitz, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, S.T. Rumbold, K. Sudo, T. Takemura, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, R.M. Doherty, V. Eyring, B. Josse, I.A. MacKenzie, D.S. Plummer, M. Righi, D.S. Stevenson, S. Strode, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng, The effect of future ambient air pollution on human premature mortality to 2100 using output from the ACCMIP model ensemble, Atmos. Chem. Phys., doi:10.5194/acp-2015-1002, in press, 2016.

Westervelt, D.M., L.W. Horowitz, V. Naik, A.P.K. Tai, A.M. Fiore, and D.L. Mauzerall, Quantifying PM2.5-meteorology sensitivities in a global climate model, Atmos. Environ., 142, 43-56, 2016.

Wolfe, G.M., J. Kaiser, T.F. Hanisco, F.N. Keutsch, J.A. de Gouw, J.B. Gilman, M. Graus, C.D. Hatch, J. Holloway, L.W. Horowitz, B.H. Lee, B.M. Lerner, F. Lopez-Hilifiker, J. Mao, M.R. Marvin, J. Peischl, I.B. Pollack, J.M. Roberts, T.B. Ryerson, J.A. Thornton, P.R. Veres, and C. Warneke, Formaldehyde production from isoprene oxidation across NOx regimes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2597-2610, doi:10.5194/acp-16-2597-2016, 2016.

Zhang, Y., J.H. Bowden, Z. Adelman, V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, S.J. Smith, and J.J. West, Co-benefits of global and regional greenhouse gas mitigation on U.S. air quality in 2050, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9533-548, doi:10.5194/acp-16-9533-2016, 2016.

Zhong, M., E. Saikawa, Y. Liu, V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, M. Takigawa, Y. Zhao, N.-H. Lin, and E.A. Stone, Air quality modeling with WRF-Chem v3.5 in East Asia: Sensitivity to emissions and evaluation of simulated air quality, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1201-1218, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-1201-2016, 2016.

Fan, S.-M., L.M. Harris, and L.W. Horowitz, Atmospheric energy transport to the Arctic 1979-2012, Tellus A, 67, 25482, 2015.

Lin, M., A.M. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, A.O. Langford, S. J. Oltmans, D. Tarasick, H.E. Reider, Climate variability modulates western US ozone air quality in spring via deep stratospheric intrusions, Nature Communications, 6, 7105, doi:10.1038/ncomms8105, 2015.

Lin, M., L.W. Horowitz, O.R. Cooper, D. Tarasick, S. Conley, L.T. Iraci, B. Johnson, T. Leblanc, I. Petropavlovskikh, and E.L. Yates, Revisiting the evidence of increasing springtime ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere over western North America, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 8719-8728, doi:10.1002/2015GL065311, 2015.

Rieder, H.E., A.M. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, and V. Naik, Projecting policy-relevant metrics for high summertime ozone pollution events over the eastern United States due to climate and emission changes during the 21st century, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 784-800, doi:10.1002/2014JD022303, 2015.

Schnell, J.L., M.J. Prather, B. Josse, V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, P. Cameron-Smith, D. Bergmann, G. Zeng, D.A. Plummer, K. Sudo, T. Nagashima, D.T. Shindell, G. Faluvegi, and S.A. Strode, Use of North American and European air quality networks to evaluate global chemistry-climate modeling of surface ozone, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10581-10596, doi:10.5194/acp-15-10581-2015, 2015.

Westervelt, D.M., L.W. Horowitz, V. Naik, J.-C. Golaz, and D.L. Mauzerall, Radiative forcing and climate response to projected 21st century aerosol decreases, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12681-12703, doi:10.5194/acp-15-12681-2015, 2015.

Clifton, O. E., A.M. Fiore, G. Correa, L.W. Horowitz, and V. Naik, Twenty-first century reversal of the surface ozone seasonal cycle over the northeastern United States, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL061378, 2014.

Cooper O.R., D.D. Parrish, J. Ziemke, N.V. Balashov, M. Cupeiro, I.E. Galbally, S. Gilge, L. Horowitz, N.R. Jensen, J.-F. Lamarque, V. Naik, S.J. Oltmans, J. Schwab, D.T. Shindell, A.M. Thompson, V. Thouret, Y. Wang, and R.M. Zbinden, Global distribution and trends of tropospheric ozone: An observation-based review, Elem. Sci. Anth, 2: 000029, doi:10.12952/journal.elementa.000029, 2014.

Fiore, A.M., J.T. Oberman, M.Y. Lin, L. Zhang, O.E. Clifton, D.J. Jacob, V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, J.P. Pinto, and G.P. Milly, Estimating North American background ozone in U.S. surface air with two independent global models: Variability, uncertainties, and recommendations, Atmos. Environ., 96, 284-300, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.07.045, 2014.

Li, X., J. Liu, D.L. Mauzerall, L.K. Emmons, S. Walters, L.W. Horowitz, and S. Tao, Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi:10.1002/2014JD021936, 2014.

Lin, M., L.W. Horowitz, S.J. Oltmans, A.M. Fiore, and S. Fan, Tropospheric ozone trends at Mauna Loa Observatory tied to decadal climate variability, Nature Geoscience, 7(2), DOI:10.1038/ngeo2066, 2014.

Merlis, T.M., I.M. Held, G.L. Stenchikov, F. Zeng, and L.W. Horowitz, Constraining transient climate sensitivity using coupled climate model simulations of volcanic eruptions, J. Clim., 27, 7781-7795, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00214.1, 2014.

Parrish, D. D., J.-F. Lamarque, V. Naik, L. Horowitz, D.T. Shindell, J. Staehelin, R. Derwent, O.R. Cooper, H. Tanimoto, A. Volz-Thomas, S. Gilge, H.-E. Scheel, M. Steinbacher, and M. Fröhlich, Long-term changes in lower tropospheric baseline ozone concentrations: Comparing chemistry-climate models and observations at northern midlatitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi:10.1002/2013JD021435, 2014.

Rotstayn, L.D., E.L. Plymin, M.A. Collier, O. Boucher, J.-L. Dufresne, J.-J. Luo, K. von Salzen, S.J. Jeffrey, M.-A. Foujols, Y. Ming, and L.W. Horowitz, Declining aerosols in CMIP5 projections: Effects on atmospheric temperature structure and midlatitude jets, J. Clim., 27, 6960-6977, 2014.

Shen, Z., J. Liu, L.W. Horowitz, D.K. Henze, S. Fan, H. Levy II, D.L. Mauzerall, J.-T. Lin, and S. Tao, Analysis of transpacific transport of black carbon during HIPPO-3: Implications for black carbon aging, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6315-6327, doi:10.5194/acp-14-6315-2014, 2014.

Austin, J., L.W. Horowitz, M.D. Schwarzkopf, R.J. Wilson, and H. Levy II, Stratospheric ozone and temperature simulated from the preindustrial era to the present day, J. Climate, 26, 3528-3543, DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00162.1, 2013.

Bowman, K.W., D.T. Shindell, H.M. Worden, J.F. Lamarque, P.J. Young, D.S. Stevenson, Z. Qu, M. de la Torre, D. Bergmann, P.J. Cameron-Smith, W.J. Collins, R. Doherty, S.B. Dalsøren, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, L.W. Horowitz, B.M. Josse, Y.H. Lee, I.A. MacKenzie, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, D.A. Plummer, S.T. Rumbold, R.B. Skeie, S.A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, A. Voulgarakis, G. Zeng, S.S. Kulawik, A.M. Aghedo, and J.R. Worden, Evaluation of ACCMIP outgoing longwave radiation from tropospheric ozone using TES satellite observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4057-4072, doi:10.5194/acp-13-4057-2013, 2013.

Eyring, V., J.M. Arblaster, I. Cionni, J. Sedláček, J. Perlwitz, P.J. Young, S. Bekki, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, W.J. Collins,
G. Faluvegi, K.-D. Gottschaldt, L.W. Horowitz, D.E. Kinnison, J.-F. Lamarque, D.R. Marsh, D. Saint-Martin, D.T. Shindell, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and S. Watanabe, Long-term ozone changes and associated climate impacts in CMIP5 simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 5029-5060, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50316, 2013.

Fang, Y., V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, and D.L. Mauzerall, Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases from the preindustrial period to present, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1377-1394, doi:10.5194/acp-13-1377-2013, 2013.

Fang, Y., A.M. Fiore, J.-F. Lamarque, L.W. Horowitz, and M. Lin, Using synthetic tracers as a proxy for summertime PM2.5 air quality over the Northeastern United States in physical climate models, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 755-760, doi:10.1002/grl.50162, 2013.

Fang, Y., D.L. Mauzerall, J. Liu, A.M. Fiore, and L.W. Horowitz, Impacts of 21st century climate change on global air pollution-related premature mortality, Climatic Change, 121(2), DOI:10.1007/s10584-013-0847-8, 2013.

Golaz, J.-C., L.W. Horowitz, and H. Levy II, Cloud tuning in a coupled climate model: Impact on 20th century warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2246-2251, doi:10.1002/grl.50232, 2013.

He, C., J. Liu, A.G. Carlton, S. Fan, L.W. Horowitz, H. Levy II, and S. Tao, Evaluation of factors controlling global secondary organic aerosol production from cloud processes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1913-1926, doi:10.5194/acp-13-1913-2013, 2013.

Lamarque, J.-F., D.T. Shindell, B. Josse, P.J. Young, I. Cionni, V. Eyring, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, W.J. Collins, R. Doherty, S. Dalsoren, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, S.J. Ghan, L.W. Horowitz, Y.H. Lee, I.A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, D. Plummer, M. Righi, S.T. Rumbold, M. Schulz, R.B. Skeie, D.S. Stevenson, S. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, A. Voulgarakis, and G. Zeng, The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): overview and description of models, simulations and climate diagnostics, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 179-206, doi:10.5194/gmd-6-179-2013, 2013.

Lee, Y. H., J.-F. Lamarque, M.G. Flanner, C. Jiao, D.T. Shindell, T. Berntsen, M.M. Bisiaux, J. Cao, W.J. Collins, M. Curran, R. Edwards, G. Faluvegi, S. Ghan, L.W. Horowitz, J.R. McConnell, J. Ming, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, S.T. Rumbold, R.B. Skeie, K. Sudo,
T. Takemura, F. Thevenon, B. Xu, and J.-H. Yoon, Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2607-2634, doi:10.5194/acp-13-2607-2013, 2013.

Levy, H. II, L.W. Horowitz, M.D. Schwarzkopf, Y. Ming, J.-C. Golaz, V. Naik, and V. Ramaswamy, The roles of aerosol direct and indirect effects in past and future climate change, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 4521-4532, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50192, 2013.

Mao, J., L.W. Horowitz, V. Naik, S. Fan, J. Liu, and A.M. Fiore, Sensitivity of tropospheric oxidants to biomass burning emissions: implications for radiative forcing, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1241-1246, doi:10.1002/grl.50210, 2013.

Mao, J., F. Paulot, D.J. Jacob, R.C. Cohen, J.D. Crounse, P.O. Wennberg, C.A. Keller, R.C. Hudman, M.P. Barkley, and L.W. Horowitz, Ozone and organic nitrates over the eastern United States: Sensitivity to isoprene chemistry, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 11,256-11,268, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50817, 2013.

Nabat, P., S. Somot, M. Mallet, I. Chiapello, J.J. Morcrette, F. Solmon, S. Szopa, F. Dulac, W. Collins, S. Ghan, L.W. Horowitz, J.F. Lamarque, Y.H. Lee, V. Naik, T. Nagashima, D. Shindell, and R. Skeie, A 4-D climatology (1979-2009) of the monthly tropospheric aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1287-1314, doi:10.5194/amt-6-1287-2013, 2013.

Naik, V., A. Voulgarakis, A.M. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, J.-F. Lamarque, M. Lin, M.J. Prather, P.J. Young, D. Bergmann, P.J. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W.J. Collins, S.B. Dalsøren, R. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, G.A. Folberth, B. Josse, Y.H. Lee, I.A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, T.P.C. van Noije, D.A. Plummer, M. Righi, S.T. Rumbold, R. Skeie, D.T. Shindell, D. Stevenson, S. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng, Preindustrial to present-day changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5277-5298, doi:10.5194/acp-13-5277-2013, 2013.

Naik, V., L.W. Horowitz, A.M. Fiore, P. Ginoux, J. Mao, A.M. Aghedo, and H. Levy II, Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in short-lived pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing, J. Geophys. Res., 118, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50608, 2013.

Shindell, D.T., J.-F. Lamarque, M. Schulz, M. Flanner, C. Jiao, M. Chin, P.J. Young, Y.H. Lee, L. Rotstayn, N. Mahowald, G. Milly, G. Faluvegi, Y. Balkanski, W.J. Collins, A.J. Conley, S. Dalsoren, R. Easter, S. Ghan, L. Horowitz, X. Liu, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, S.T. Rumbold, R. Skeie, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, T. Takemura, A. Voulgarakis, J.-H. Yoon, and F. Lo, Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2939-2974, doi:10.5194/acp-13-2939-2013, 2013.

Silva, R.A., J.J. West, Y. Zhang, S.C. Anenberg, J.-F. Lamarque, D.T. Shindell, W.J. Collins, S. Dalsoren, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, L.W. Horowitz, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, S. Rumbold, R. Skeie, K. Sudo, T. Takemura, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, R.M. Doherty, V. Eyring, B. Josse, I.A. MacKenzie, D. Plummer, M. Righi, D.S. Stevenson, S. Strode, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng, Global premature mortality due to anthropogenic outdoor air pollution and the contribution of past climate change, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 034005, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034005, 2013.

Stevenson, D.S., P.J. Young, V. Naik, J.-F. Lamarque, D.T. Shindell, A. Voulgarakis, R.B. Skeie, S.B. Dalsoren, G. Myhre, T.K. Berntsen, G.A. Folberth, S.T. Rumbold, W.J. Collins, I.A. MacKenzie, R.M. Doherty, G. Zeng, T.P.C. van Noije, A. Strunk, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, D.A. Plummer, S.A. Strode, L. Horowitz, Y.H. Lee, S. Szopa, K. Sudo, T. Nagashima, B. Josse, I. Cionni, M. Righi, V. Eyring, A. Conley, K.W. Bowman, O. Wild, and A. Archibald, Tropospheric ozone changes, radiative forcing and attribution to emissions in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (ACCMIP), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3063-3085, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3063-2013, 2013.

Su, H., J.H. Jiang, C. Zhai, V.S. Perun, J.T. Shen, A. del Genio, L.S. Nazarenko, L.J. Donner, L. Horowitz, C. Seman, C. Morcrette, J. Petch, M. Ringer, J. Cole, K. von Salzen, M. dos Santos Mesquita, T. Iversen, J.E. Kristjansson, A. Gettelman, L. Rotstayn, S. Jeffrey, J.-L. Dufresne, M. Watanabe, H. Kawai, T. Koshiro, T. Wu, E.M. Volodin, T. L’Ecuyer, J. Teixeira, and G.L. Stephens, Diagnosis of regime-dependent cloud simulation errors in CMIP5 models using “A-Train” satellite observations and reanalysis data, J. Geophys. Res., 118, doi:10.1029/2012JD018575, 2013.

Turner, A.J., A.M. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, V. Naik, and M. Bauer, Summertime cyclones over the Great Lakes Storm Track from 1860-2100: variability, trends, and association with ozone pollution, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 13,565-13,578, doi:10.5194/acp-13-565-2013, 2013.

Voulgarakis, A., V. Naik, J.-F. Lamarque, D.T. Shindell, P.J. Young, M.J. Prather, O. Wild, R.D. Field, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W.J. Collins, S.B. Dalsøren, R.M. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, G.A. Folberth, L.W. Horowitz, B. Josse, I.A. McKenzie, T. Nagashima, D.A. Plummer, M. Righi, S.T. Rumbold, D.S. Stevenson, S.A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng, Analysis of present day and future OH and methane lifetime in the ACCMIP simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2563-2587, doi:10.5194/acp-13-2563-2013, 2013.

West, J.J., S.J. Smith, R.A. Silva, V. Naik, Y. Zhang, Z. Adelman, M.M. Fry, S. Anenberg, L.W. Horowitz, and J.-F. Lamarque, Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health, doi:10.1038/nclimate2009, 2013.

Winton, M., A. Adcroft, S.M. Griffies, R.W. Hallberg, L.W. Horowitz, and R.J. Stouffer, Influence of ocean and atmosphere components on simulated climate sensitivities, J. Climate, 26, 231-245, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00121.1, 2013.

Young, P.J., A.T. Archibald, K.W. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, V. Naik, D.S. Stevenson, S. Tilmes, A. Voulgarakis, O. Wild, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W.J. Collins, S.B. Dalsøren, R.M. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, L.W. Horowitz, B. Josse, Y.H. Lee, I.A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, D.A. Plummer, M. Righi, S.T. Rumbold, R.B. Skeie, D.T. Shindell, S.A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng, Pre-industrial to end 21st century projections of tropospheric ozone from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2063-2090, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-2063-2013, 2013.

Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, V.S. Perun, A. Del Genio, L.S. Nazarenko,
L.J. Donner, L. Horowitz, C. Seman, J. Cole, A. Gettelman,
M.A. Ringer, L. Rostayn, S. Jerrfey, T. Wu, F. Brient, J.-L. Dufersne,
H. Kawai, T. Koshiro, M. Watanabe, T.S. Lécuyer, E.M. Volodin,
T. Iversen, H. Drange, M.D.S. Mesquita, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters,
B. Tian, J. Teixeira, and G.L. Stephens,
Evaluation of cloud and water vapor simulations in CMIP5
climate models using NASA “A-Train” satellite observations
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J. Geophys. Res., 117, D14105, doi:10.1029/2011JD017237, 2012.

John, J.G., A.M.Fiore, V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, and J.P. Dunne,
Climate versus emission drivers of methane lifetime against loss by
tropospheric OH from 1860-2100
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12,021-12,036,
doi:10.5194/acp-12-12021-2012, 2012.

Koffi, B., M. Schulz, F.-M. Bréon, J. Griesfeller, D. Winker,
Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. Berntsen, M. Chin, W.D. Collins,
F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong,
L.W. Horowitz, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch,
M. Krol, G. Myhre, P. Stier, and T. Takemura,
Application of the CALIOP layer product to evaluate the
vertical distribution of aerosols estimated by global models:
AeroCom phase I results
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J. Geophys. Res., 117, D10201, doi:10.1029/2011JD016858,
2012.

Li, J.-L. F., D.E. Waliser, W.-T. Chen, B. Guan, T. Kubar, G. Stephens,
H.-Y. Ma, M. Deng, L. Donner, C. Seman, and L. Horowitz,
An observationally based evaluation of cloud ice water in CMIP3
and CMIP5 GCMs and contemporary reanalyses using contemporary
satellite data
,
J. Geophys. Res., 117, D16105, doi:10.1029/2012JD017640, 2012.

Lin, M., A.M. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, O.R. Cooper, V. Naik,
J. Holloway, B.J. Johnson, A.M. Middlebrook, S.J. Oltmans, I.B. Pollack,
T.B. Ryerson, J.X. Warner, C. Wiedinmyer, J. Wilson, and B. Wyman,
Transport of Asian ozone pollution into surface air over the
western United States in spring
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J. Geophys. Res., 117, D00V07, doi:10.1029/2011JD016961, 2012.

Lin, M., A.M. Fiore, O.R. Cooper, L.W. Horowitz, A.O. Langford,
H. Levy II, B.J. Johnson, V. Naik, S.J. Oltmans, and C.J. Senff,
Springtime high surface ozone events over the western United States:
Quantifying the role of stratospheric intrusions
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J. Geophys. Res., 117, D00V22, doi:10.1029/2012JD018151, 2012.

Liu, J., L.W. Horowitz, S. Fan, A.G. Carlton,
and H. Levy II,
Global in-cloud production of secondary organic aerosols:
Implementation of a detailed chemical mechanism in the
GFDL atmospheric model AM3
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J. Geophys. Res., 117, D15303,
doi:10.1029/2012JD017838, 2012.

Rasmussen, D.J., A.M. Fiore, V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz,
S.J. McGinnis, and M.G. Schultz,
Surface ozone-temperature relationships in the eastern US:
A monthly climatology for evaluating chemistry-climate models
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Atmos. Environ., 47, 142-153,
doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.11.021, 2012.

West, J.J., A.M. Fiore, and L.W.Horowitz,
Scenarios of methane emission reductions to 2030:
Abatement costs and co-benefits to ozone air quality and human mortality
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Climatic Change, doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0426-4, 2012.

Anenberg, S.C., J.J West, L.W. Horowitz, and D.Q. Tong,
The global burden of air pollution on mortality:
Anenberg et al. Respond
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a158-a159, doi:10.1289/ehp.1003276R, 2011.

Avnery, S., D.L. Mauzerall, J. Liu, and L.W. Horowitz,
Global crop yield reductions due to surface ozone exposure:
1. Year 2000 crop production losses and economic damage
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Atmos. Environ., 45, 2284-2296,
doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.11.045, 2011.

Avnery, S., D.L. Mauzerall, J. Liu, L.W. Horowitz,
Global crop yield reductions due to surface ozone exposure:
2. Year 2030 potential crop production losses and economic damage
under two scenarios of O3 pollution
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Atmos. Environ., 45, 2297-2309,
doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.01.002, 2011.

Donner, L.J., B.L. Wyman, R.S. Hemler, L.W. Horowitz, Y. Ming, M. Zhao, J.-C. Golaz, P. Ginoux, S-J. Lin, M.D. Schwarzkopf,
J. Austin, G. Alaka, W.F. Cooke, T.L. Delworth, S.M. Freidenreich, C.T. Gordon, S.M. Griffies, I.M. Held, W.J. Hurlin, S.A. Klein, T.R. Knutson, A.R. Langenhorst, H.-C. Lee, Y. Lin, B.I. Magi, S.L. Malyshev, P.C.D. Milly, V. Naik, M.J. Nath, R. Pincus, J.J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, C.J. Seman, E. Shevliakova, J.J. Sirutis, W.F. Stern, R.J. Stouffer, R.J. Wilson, M. Winton, A.T. Wittenberg, and F. Zeng,
The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3, J. Clim., 24, 3484-3519, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI3955.1, 2011.

Fang, Y., A.M. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, A. Gnanadesikan, I. Held,
G. Chen, G. Vecchi, and H. Levy,
The impacts of changing transport and precipitation on
pollutant distributions in a future climate
,
J. Geophys. Res., 116, D18303, doi:10.1029/2011JD015642, 2011.

Golaz, J.-C., M. Salzmann, L.J. Donner, L.W. Horowitz,
Y. Ming, and M. Zhao,
Sensitivity of the aerosol indirect effect to subgrid variability in the
cloud parameterization of the GFDL atmosphere general circulation model AM3
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J. Clim., 24, 3145-3160, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3945.1, 2011.

Griffies, S.M., M. Winton, L.J. Donner, L.W. Horowitz,
S.M. Downes, R. Farneti, A. Gnanadesikan, W.J. Hurlin, H.-C. Lee,
Z. Liang, J.B. Palter, B.L. Samuels, A.T. Wittenberg, B.L. Wyman,
J. Yin, and N. Zadeh,

GFDL’s CM3 coupled climate model: Characteristics of the ocean and
sea ice simulations
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J. Clim., 24, 3520-3544, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI3964.1, 2011.

Huneeus, N., M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, J. Griesfeller, J. Prospero,
S. Kinne, S. Bauer, O. Boucher, M. Chin, F. Dentener, T. Diehl,
R. Easter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, A. Grini, L. Horowitz,
D. Koch, M.C. Krol, W. Landing, X. Liu, N. Mahowald, R. Miller,
J.-J. Morcrette, G. Myhre, J.E. Penner, J. Perlwitz, P. Stier,
T. Takemura, and C. Zender,
Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 7781-7816,
doi:10.5194/acp-11-7781-2011, 2011.

Liu, J., S. Fan, L.W. Horowitz, and H. Levy II,
Evaluation of factors controlling long-range transport of
black carbon to the Arctic
, J. Geophys. Res., 116,
D04307, doi:10.1029/2010JD015145, 2011.

Rasmussen, D.J., A.M. Fiore, V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz,
S.J. McGinnis, M.G. Schultz,
Surface ozone-temperature relationships in the eastern US:
A monthly climatology for evaluating chemistry-climate models
,
Atmos. Environ., 47, 142-153, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.11.021,
2011.

Saikawa, E., J. Kurokawa, M. Takigawa, J. Borken-Kleefeld,
D.L. Mauzerall, L.W. Horowitz, and T. Ohara,

The impact of China’s vehicle emissions on regional air quality
in 2000 and 2020: a scenario analysis
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9465-9484,
doi:10.5194/acp-11-9465-2011, 2011.

Anenberg, S.C., L.W. Horowitz, D.Q. Tong, and J.J. West,
An estimate of the global burden of anthropogenic ozone and fine particulate matter on premature human mortality using atmospheric modeling,
Environ Health Perspect., doi:10.1289/ehp.0901220, 2010.

Anenberg, S.C., J.J. West, L.W. Horowitz, and D.Q. Tong,
The global burden of air pollution on mortality: Anenberg et al. respond,
Environ Health Perspect., doi:10.1289/ehp.1002397R , 2010.

Fang, Y., A.M. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, H. Levy II, Y. Hu,
and A.G. Russell,
Sensitivity of the NOy budget over
the United States to anthropogenic and lightning NOx in summer
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J. Geophys. Res., 115, D18312, doi:10.1029/2010JD014079, 2010.

Koch, D., M. Schulz, S. Kinne, C. McNaughton, J.R. Spackman,
Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T.C. Bond,
O. Boucher, M. Chin, A. Clarke, N. De Luca, F. Dentener,
T. Diehl, O. Dubovik, R. Easter, D.W. Fahey, J. Feichter,
D. Fillmore, S. Freitag, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong,
L. Horowitz, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, Z. Klimont, Y. Kondo,
M. Krol, X. Liu, R. Miller, V. Montanaro, N. Moteki, G. Myhre,
J.E. Penner, J. Perlwitz, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, L. Sahu,
H. Sakamoto, G. Schuster, J.P. Schwarz, Ø. Seland, P. Stier,
N. Takegawa, T. Takemura, C. Textor, J.A. van Aardenne, and Y. Zhao,
Corrigendum to “Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol
models” published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9001-9026, 2009
,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 79-81, doi:10.5194/acp-10-79-2010, 2010.

Naik, V., A.M. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, H.B. Singh, C. Wiedinmyer,
A. Guenther, J.A. de Gouw, D.B. Millet, P.D. Goldan, W.C. Kuster,
and A. Goldstein,
Observational constraints on the global atmospheric budget of ethanol,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5361-5370,
doi:10.5194/acp-10-5361-2010, 2010.

Saikawa, E., V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, J. Liu, D.L. Mauzerall,
Corrigendum to: “Present and potential future contributions of sulfate,
black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality,
premature mortality and radiative forcing”
[Atmos. Environ. 43 (2009) 2814-2822]
,
Atmos. Environ., 44, 4528, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.07.009,
2010.

Fang, Y., A.M. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, A. Gnanadesikan, H. Levy,
Y. Hu, and A.G. Russell,

Estimating the contribution of strong daily export events
to total pollutant export from the United States in summer
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J. Geophys. Res., 114, D23302, doi:10.1029/2008JD010946, 2009.

Fiore, A.M., F.J. Dentener, O. Wild, C. Cuvelier, M.G. Schultz, P. Hess,
C. Textor, M. Schulz, R.M. Doherty, L.W. Horowitz, I.A. MacKenzie,
M.G. Sanderson, D.T. Shindell, D.S. Stevenson, S. Szopa, R. Van Dingenen,
G. Zeng, C. Atherton, D. Bergmann, I. Bey, G. Carmichael,
W.J. Collins, B.N. Duncan, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, M. Gauss,
S. Gong, D. Hauglustaine, T. Holloway, I.S.A. Isaksen, D.J. Jacob,
J.E. Jonson, J.W. Kaminski, T.J. Keating, A. Lupu, E. Marmer,
V. Montanaro, R.J. Park, G. Pitari, K.J. Pringle, J.A. Pyle,
S. Schroeder, M.G.Vivanco, P. Wind, G. Wojcik, S. Wu, and A. Zuber,
Multi-model estimates of intercontinental source-receptor relationships
for ozone pollution
, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D04301,
doi:10.1029/2008JD010816, 2009.

Koch, D., M. Schulz, S. Kinne, C. McNaughton, J.R. Spackman,
Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T.C. Bond,
O. Boucher, M. Chin, A. Clarke, N. De Luca, F. Dentener,
T. Diehl, O. Dubovik, R. Easter, D.W. Fahey, J. Feichter,
D. Fillmore, S. Freitag, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong,
L. Horowitz, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, Z. Klimont, Y. Kondo,
M. Krol, X. Liu, R. Miller, V. Montanaro, N. Moteki, G. Myhre,
J.E. Penner, J. Perlwitz, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, L. Sahu,
H. Sakamoto, G. Schuster, J.P. Schwarz, Ø. Seland, P. Stier,
N. Takegawa, T. Takemura, C. Textor, J.A. van Aardenne, and Y. Zhao,

Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models
,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9001-9026,
doi:10.5194/acp-9-9001-2009, 2009.

Liu, J., D.L. Mauzerall, L.W. Horowitz, P. Ginoux, and A.M. Fiore,
Evaluating inter-continental transport of fine aerosols: (1) Methodology,
global aerosol distribution and optical depth
, Atmos. Environ.,
43, 4327-4338, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.03.054, 2009.

Liu, J., D.L. Mauzerall, and L.W. Horowitz,
Evaluating inter-continental transport of fine aerosols:
(2) Global health impact
, Atmos. Environ.,
43, 4339-4347, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.05.032, 2009.

Livingstone, P.L., K. Magliano, K. Gürer, P.D. Allen, K.M. Zhang, Q. Ying,
B.S. Jackson, A. Kaduwela, M. Kleeman, L.F. Woodhouse, K. Turkiewicz,
L.W. Horowitz, K. Scott, D. Johnson, C. Taylor, G. O’Brien,
J. DaMassa, B.E. Croes,
Simulating PM concentration during a winter episode in a subtropical
valley: Sensitivity simulations and evaluation methods
,
Atmos. Environ., 43, 5971-5977,
doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.07.033, 2009.

Saikawa, E., V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, J. Liu, and D.L. Mauzerall,
Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic
carbon aerosols from China to global air quality, premature mortality and
radiative forcing
, Atmos. Environ., 43, 2814-2822,
doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.02.017, 2009.

West, J.J., V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, and A.M. Fiore,
Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range
ozone transport — Part 1: short-term changes in ozone air quality
,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6077-6093, 2009.

West, J.J., V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, and A.M. Fiore,
Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone
transport — Part 2: steady-state changes in ozone air quality and
impacts on human mortality
,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6095-6107, 2009.

Ellingsen, K., M. Gauss, R. Van Dingenen, F.J. Dentener, L. Emberson,
A.M. Fiore, M.G. Schultz, D.S. Stevenson, M.R. Ashmore, C.S. Atherton,
D.J. Bergmann, I. Bey, T. Butler, J. Drevet, H. Eskes, D.A. Hauglustaine,
I.S.A. Isaksen, L.W. Horowitz, M. Krol, J.F. Lamarque,
M.G. Lawrence, T. van Noije, J. Pyle, S. Rast, J. Rodriguez, N. Savage,
S. Strahan, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and O. Wild,
Global ozone and air quality: A multi-model assessment of risks to
human health and crops
, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
8, 2163-2223, 2008.

Fiore, A., J. West, L. Horowitz, V. Naik, and M.D. Schwarzkopf,
Characterizing the tropospheric ozone response to methane emission
controls and the benefits to climate and air quality
,
J. Geophys. Res., 113, D08307, doi:10.1029/2007JD009162, 2008.

Heald, C.L., D.K. Henze, L.W. Horowitz, J. Feddema, J.-F. Lamarque,
A. Guenther, P.G. Hess, F. Vitt, J.H. Seinfeld, A.H. Goldstein, and I. Fung,
Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol concentrations in
response to future climate, emissions, and land-use change
,
J. Geophys. Res., 113, D05211, doi:10.1029/2007JD009092, 2008.

Holloway, T., T. Sakurai, Z. Han, S. Ehlers, S.N. Spak, L.W. Horowitz,
G.R. Carmichael, D.G. Streets, Y. Hozumi, H. Ueda, S.U. Park, C. Fung,
M. Kajino, N. Thongboonchoo, M. Engardt, C. Bennet, H. Hayami, K. Sartelet,
Z. Wang, K. Matsuda, and M. Amann,
MICS-Asia II: Impact of global emissions on regional air quality in Asia,
Atmos. Environ., 42, 3543-3561,
doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.022, 2008.

Levy, H., II, M.D. Schwarzkopf, L. Horowitz, V. Ramaswamy, and
K. Findell,
Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in
short-lived air pollutants
, J. Geophys. Res., 113,
D06102, doi:10.1029/2007JD009176, 2008.

Liu, J., D.L. Mauzerall, and L.W. Horowitz,
Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide
emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations
,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3721-3733, 2008.

Parrington, M., D.B.A. Jones, K.W. Bowman, L.W. Horowitz,
A.M. Thompson, D.W. Tarasick, and J.C. Witte,
Estimating the summertime tropospheric ozone distribution over
North America through assimilation of observations from the
Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer
,
J. Geophys. Res., 113, D18307, doi:10.1029/2007JD009341,
2008.

Sanderson, M.G., F.J. Dentener, A.M. Fiore, C. Cuvelier, T.J. Keating,
A. Zuber, C.S. Atherton, D.J. Bergmann, T. Diehl, R.M. Doherty, B.N. Duncan,
P. Hess, L.W. Horowitz, D.J. Jacob, J.-E. Jonson, J.W. Kaminski,
A. Lupu, I.A. MacKenzie, E. Mancini, E. Marmer, R. Park, G. Pitari,
M. J. Prather, K.J. Pringle, S. Schroeder, M.G. Schultz, D.T. Shindell,
S. Szopa, O. Wild, and P. Wind,
A multi-model study of the hemispheric transport and deposition
of oxidised nitrogen
,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L17815,
doi:10.1029/2008GL035389, 2008.

Shindell, D.T., H. Levy, II, M.D. Schwarzkopf, L.W. Horowitz, J. Lamarque, and G. Faluvegi,
Multimodel projections of climate change from short-lived emissions due to human activities, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D11109, doi:10.1029/2007JD009152, 2008.

Shindell, D.T., M. Chin, F. Dentener, R.M. Doherty,
G. Faluvegi, A.M. Fiore, P. Hess, D.M. Koch, I.A. MacKenzie, M.G. Sanderson,
M.G. Schultz, M. Schulz, D.S. Stevenson, H. Teich, C. Textor,
D.J. Bergmann, I. Bey, H. Bian, C. Cuvelier, B.N. Duncan, G. Folberth,
L.W. Horowitz, J. Jonson, J.W. Kaminski, E. Marmer, R. Park,
K.J. Pringle, S. Schroeder, S. Szopa, T. Takemura, G. Zeng, T.J. Keating,
and A. Zuber,
A multi-model assessment of pollution transport to the Arctic,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5353-5372, 2008.

United States Climate Change Science Program (CCSP),
Climate Projections Based on Emissions
Scenarios for Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radiatively Active Gases
and Aerosols
. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program
and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research.
H. Levy II, D.T. Shindell, A. Gilliland, M.D. Schwarzkopf, L.W. Horowitz,
(eds.). Department of Commerce, NOAA”s National Climatic Data Center,
Washington, D.C., USA, 100 pp., 2008.

Donner, L.J., L.W. Horowitz, A.M. Fiore, C.J. Seman, D.R. Blake,
and N.J. Blake,
Transport of radon-222 and methyl iodide by deep convection in the GFDL
global atmospheric model AM2
,
J. Geophys. Res., 112, D17303, doi:10.1029/2006JD007548, 2007.

Gloor, M., E. Dlugokencky, C. Brenninkmeijer, L. Horowitz,
D.F. Hurst, G. Dutton, C. Crevoisier, T. Machida, and P. Tans,
Three-dimensional SF6 data and tropospheric transport simulations:Signals, modeling accuracy, and implications for inverse modeling,
J. Geophys. Res., 112, D15112, doi:10.1029/2006JD007973, 2007.

Horowitz, L.W., A.M. Fiore, G.P. Milly, R.C. Cohen, A. Perring,
P.J. Wooldridge, P.G. Hess, L.K. Emmons, and J.-F. Lamarque,
Observational constraints on the chemistry of isoprene nitrates overthe eastern United States, J. Geophys. Res.,
112, D12S08, doi:10.1029/2006JD007747, 2007.

Mena-Carrasco, M., Y. Tang, G. Carmichael, T. Chai, N. Thongboonchoo,
E. Campbell, S. Kulkarni, L. Horowitz, J. Vukovich, M. Avery,
W. Brune, J. Dibb, L. Emmons, F. Flocke, G. Sachse, D. Tan,
R.E. Shetter, R. Talbot, D. Streets, G. Frost, and D. Blake,
Improving regional ozone modeling through systematic evaluation
of errors using the aircraft observations during the International
Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation
,
J. Geophys. Res., 112, D12S19, doi:10.1029/2006JD007762,
2007.

Ming, Y., V. Ramaswamy, L.J. Donner, V.T.J. Phillips, S.A. Klein,
P.A. Ginoux, and L.W. Horowitz,
Modeling the interactions between aerosols and liquid water clouds
with a self-consistent cloud scheme in a general circulation model
,
J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 1189-1209, 2007.

Naik, V., D.L. Mauzerall, L.W. Horowitz, M.D. Schwarzkopf, V. Ramaswamy,
and M. Oppenheimer,
On the sensitivity of radiative forcing from biomass
burning aerosols and ozone to emission location
,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L03818,
doi:10.1029/2006GL028149, 2007.

Singh, H.B., L. Salas, D. Herlth, R. Kolyer, E. Czech, M. Avery,
J.H. Crawford, R.B. Pierce, G.W. Sachse, D.R. Blake, R.C. Cohen, T.H. Bertram,
A. Perring, P.J. Wooldridge, J. Dibb,
G. Huey, R.C. Hudman, S. Turquety, L.K. Emmons, F. Flocke, Y. Tang,
G.R. Carmichael, and L.W. Horowitz,
Reactive nitrogen distribution and partitioning in the
North American troposphere and lowermost stratosphere
,
J. Geophys. Res., 112, D12S04, doi:10.1029/2006JD007664, 2007.

Tang, Y., G.R. Carmichael, N. Thongboonchoo, T. Chai, L.W. Horowitz,
R.B. Pierce, J.A. Al-Saadi, G. Pfister, J.M. Vukovich, M.A. Avery,
G.W. Sachse, T.B. Ryerson, J.S. Holloway, E.L. Atlas, F.M. Flocke,
R.J. Weber, L.G. Huey, J.E. Dibb, D.G. Streets, and W.H. Brune,
The influence of lateral and top boundary conditions on regional air quality
prediction: A multi-scale study coupling regional and global chemical
transport models
,
J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10S18, doi:10.1029/2006JD007515, 2007.

Textor, C., M. Schulz, S. Guibert, S. Kinne, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer,
T. Berntsen, T. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, F. Dentener, T. Diehl,
J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks,
L. Horowitz, P. Huang, I.S.A. Isaksen, T. Iversen,
S. Kloster, D. Koch, A. Kirkevåg, J.E. Kristjansson, M. Krol,
A. Lauer, J.F. Lamarque, X. Liu, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre,
J.E. Penner, G. Pitari, M.S. Reddy, Ø. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie,
The effect of harmonized emissions on aerosol properties in global
models — an AeroCom experiment
, Atmos. Chem. Phys.,
7, 4489-4501, 2007.

West, J.J., A.M. Fiore, V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, M.D. Schwarzkopf,
and D.L. Mauzerall,
Ozone air quality and radiative forcing consequences of changes in
ozone precursor emissions
,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L06806, doi:10.1029/2006GL029173, 2007.

Bates, T.S., T.L. Anderson, T. Baynard, T. Bond, O. Boucher, G. Carmichael,
A. Clarke, C. Erlick, H. Guo, L. Horowitz, S. Howell, S. Kulkarni,
H. Maring, A. McComiskey, A. Middlebrook, K. Noone, C.D. O’Dowd, J. Ogren,
J. Penner, P. K. Quinn, A. R. Ravishankara, D. L. Savoie,
S.E. Schwartz, Y. Shinozuka, Y. Tang, R. J. Weber, Y. Wu,
Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic,
northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in-situ
chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling
,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1657-1732, 2006.

Crevoisier, C., M. Gloor, E. Gloaguen, L.W. Horowitz, J.L. Sarmiento,
C. Sweeney and P.P. Tans,
A direct carbon budgeting approach to infer carbon sources and sinks.Design and synthetic application to complement the NACP observation network,
Tellus B, 58(5), 366-375, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00214.x,
2006.

Delworth, T.L., A. Rosati, R.J. Stouffer, K.W. Dixon, J. Dunne, K.L. Findell,
P. Ginoux, A. Gnanadesikan, C.T. Gordon, S.M. Griffies, R. Gudgel,
M.J. Harrison, I.M. Held, R.S. Hemler, L.W. Horowitz, S.A. Klein,
T.R. Knutson, S.-J. Lin, V. Ramaswamy, M.D. Schwarzkopf, J.J. Sirutis,
M.J. Spelman, W.F. Stern, M. Winton, A.T. Wittenberg, B. Wyman,
A.J. Broccoli, V. Balaji, J. Russell, R. Zhang, J.A. Beesley, J. Liu,
W.F. Cooke, J.W. Durachta, A.R. Langenhorst, H.-C. Lee, F. Zeng, K.A. Dunne,
P.C.D. Milly, P.J. Kushner, S.L. Malyshev, and E. Shevliakova,
GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models Part 1: Formulation and simulationcharacteristics, J. Climate, 19(5), 643-674, 2006.

Dentener, F., J. Drevet, J.F. Lamarque, I. Bey, B. Eickhout,
A.M. Fiore, D. Hauglustaine, L.W. Horowitz, M.Krol,
U.C. Kulshrestha, M. Lawrence, C. Galy-Lacaux, S. Rast,
D. Shindell, D. Stevenson, T. van Noije, C. Atherton,
N. Bell, D. Bergman, T. Butler, J. Cofala, B. Collins, R. Doherty,
K. Ellingsen, J. Galloway, M. Gauss, V. Montanaro, J.F. Müller,
G. Pitari, J. Rodriguez, M. Sanderson, F. Solmon, S. Strahan,
M. Schultz, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and O. Wild,
Nitrogen and sulfur deposition on regional and global scales: A multimodel evaluation,
Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, GB4003, doi:10.1029/2005GB002672,
2006.

Dentener, F., D. Stevenson, K. Ellingsen, T. van Noije, M. Schultz, M. Amann,
C. Atherton, N. Bell, D. Bergmann, I. Bey, L. Bouwman, T. Butler, J. Cofala,
B. Collins, J. Drevet, R. Doherty, B. Eickhout, H. Eskes, A. Fiore,
M. Gauss, D. Hauglustaine, L. Horowitz, I.S.A. Isaksen, B. Josse,
M. Lawrence, M.Krol, J.F. Lamarque, V. Montanaro, J.F. Mueller, V.H. Peuch,
G. Pitari, J. Pyle, S. Rast, J. Rodriguez, M. Sanderson, N.H. Savage,
D. Shindell, S. Strahan, S. Szopa, K.Sudo, R.Van Dingenen,
O. Wild, G. Zeng,
The global atmospheric environment for the next generation,
Environ. Sci. & Technol., 40, 3586-3594, 2006.

Fiore, A.M., L.W. Horowitz, E.J. Dlugokencky, and J.J. West,
Impact of meteorology and emissions on methane trends, 1990-2004,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L12809, doi:10.1029/2006GL026199,
2006.

Ginoux, P., L.W. Horowitz, V. Ramaswamy, I.V. Geogdzhayev, B.N. Holben,
G. Stenchikov, and X. Tie,
Evaluation of aerosol distribution and optical depth
in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled model CM2.1 for
present climate
, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22210,
doi:10.1029/2005JD006707, 2006.

Horowitz, L.W.,
Past, present, and future concentrations of tropospheric ozone
and aerosols: Methodology, ozone evaluation, and sensitivity to aerosol wet
removal
, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22211,
doi:10.1029/2005JD006937, 2006.

Kinne, S., M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer,
T. Berntsen, T. F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener,
T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux,
S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen,
T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J.E. Kristjansson, M. Krol,
A. Lauer, J. F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro,
G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, Ø. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura,
X. Tie,
An AeroCom initial assessment — optical properties in aerosol component
modules of global models
, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1815-1834,
2006.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, D.S. Stevenson, M.C. Krol, L.K. Emmons,
J.-F. Lamarque, G. Pétron, F.J. Dentener, K. Ellingsen, M.G. Schultz, O. Wild,
M. Amann, C.S. Atherton,
D.J. Bergmann, I. Bey, T. Butler, J. Cofala, W.J. Collins, R.G. Derwent,
R.M. Doherty, J. Drevet, H.J. Eskes, A.M. Fiore, M. Gauss, D.A. Hauglustaine,
L.W. Horowitz, I.S.A. Isaksen, M.G. Lawrence, V. Montanaro,
J.-F. Müller, G. Pitari, M.J. Prather, J.A. Pyle, S. Rast, J.M. Rodriguez,
M.G. Sanderson, N.H. Savage, S.E. Strahan, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, N. Unger,
T.P.C. van Noije, and G. Zeng,
Multi-model simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and
projected near-future changes
, J. Geophys. Res., 111,
19306, doi:10.1029/2006JD007100, 2006.

Stevenson, D.S., F.J. Dentener, M.G. Schultz, K. Ellingsen, T.P.C. van Noije,
O. Wild, G. Zeng, M. Amann, C.S. Atherton, N. Bell, D.J. Bergmann, I. Bey,
T. Butler, J. Cofala, W.J. Collins, R.G. Derwent, R.M. Doherty, J. Drevet,
H.J. Eskes, A.M. Fiore, M. Gauss, D.A. Hauglustaine, L.W. Horowitz,
I.S.A. Isaksen, M.C. Krol, J.-F. Lamarque, M.G. Lawrence, V. Montanaro,
J.-F. Mueller, G. Pitari, M.J. Prather, J.A. Pyle, S. Rast, J.M. Rodriguez,
M.G. Sanderson, N.H. Savage, D.T. Shindell, S.E. Strahan, K. Sudo, S. Szopa,
Multi-model ensemble simulations of present-day and near-future
tropospheric ozone
, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D08301,
doi:10.1029/2005JD006338, 2006.

Textor, C., M. Schulz, S. Guibert, S. Kinne, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer,
T. Berntsen, T. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, F. Dentener, T. Diehl,
R. Easter, H. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong,
A. Grini, J. Hendricks, L. Horowitz, P. Huang, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen,
S. Kloster, D. Koch, A. Kirkevåg, J. E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer,
J. F. Lamarque, X. Liu, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari,
S. Reddy, Ø. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie,
Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles
within AeroCom
, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1815-1834, 2006.

van Noije, T.P.C., H.J. Eskes, F.J. Dentener, D.S. Stevenson, K. Ellingsen,
M.G. Schultz, O. Wild, M. Amann, C.S. Atherton, D.J. Bergmann, I. Bey,
K.F. Boersma, T. Butler, J. Cofala, J. Drevet, A.M. Fiore, M. Gauss,
D.A. Hauglustaine, L.W. Horowitz, I.S.A. Isaksen, M.C. Krol,
J.-F. Lamarque, M.G. Lawrence, R.V. Martin, V. Montanaro, J.-F. Mueller,
G. Pitari, M.J. Prather, J.A. Pyle, A. Richter, J.M. Rodriguez, N.H. Savage,
S. E. Strahan, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and M. van Roozendael,
Multi-model ensemble simulations of tropospheric NO2 compared
with GOME retrievals for the year 2000
, Atmos. Chem. Phys.,
6, 2943-2979, 2006.

West, J.J., A.M. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, and D.L. Mauzerall,
Global health benefits of mitigating ozone pollution with methane emission
controls
, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 103(11), 3988-3993,
doi:10.1073/pnas.0600201103, 2006.

Brasseur, G., Guenther, and L. Horowitz, Atmospheric chemistry in the
tropics, in Climate Change and Africa, edited by P.S. Low,
Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, pp. 60-68, 2005.

Fiore, A.M., L.W. Horowitz, D.W. Purves, H. Levy II, M.J. Evans, Y. Wang, Q. Li, and R.M. Yantosca, Evaluating the contribution of isoprene emissions to surface ozone trendsover the eastern United States, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D12303, doi:10.1029/2004jd005485, 2005.

Lamarque, J.F., J.T. Kiehl, G.P. Brasseur, T. Butler, P. Cameron-Smith,
W.D. Collins, W.J. Collins, C. Granier, D. Hauglustaine, P.G. Hess,
E.A. Holland, L. Horowitz, M.G. Lawrence, D. McKenna, P. Merilees,
M.J. Prather, P.J. Rasch, D. Rotman, D. Shindell, and P. Thornton,
Assessing future nitrogen deposition and carbon cycle feedback using
a multimodel approach: Analysis of nitrogen deposition
,
J. Geophys. Res., 110, D19303, doi:10.1029/2005JD005825, 2005.

Liu, J., D.L. Mauzerall, and L.W. Horowitz,
Analysis of seasonal and interannual
variability in transpacific transport
, J. Geophys. Res.,
110, D04302, doi:10.1029/2004jd005207, 2005.

Ming, Y., V. Ramaswamy, P.A. Ginoux, L.W. Horowitz, and L.M. Russell,
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model
investigation of the indirect radiative effects of anthropogenic sulfate
aerosol
, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D22206,
doi:10.1029/2005JD006161, 2005.

Ming Y., V. Ramaswamy, P.A. Ginoux, and L.W. Horowitz,
Direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic organic aerosol,
J. Geophys. Res., 110, D20208, doi:10.1029/2004JD005573, 2005.

Naik, V., D. Mauzerall, L. Horowitz, M.D. Schwarzkopf, V. Ramaswamy,
and M. Oppenheimer,
Net radiative forcing due to changes in regional emissions
of tropospheric ozone precursors
, J. Geophys. Res., 110,
D24306, doi:10.1029/2005JD005908, 2005.

Cooper, O.R., C. Forster, D.D. Parrish, E. Dunlea, G. Hübler, F.C. Fehsenfeld, J.S.
Holloway, S.J. Oltmans, B.J. Johnson, A. Wimmers and L. Horowitz,
On the life-cycle
of a stratospheric intrusion and its dispersion into polluted warm conveyor belts
, J.
Geophys. Res.
, 109, D23S09, doi:10.1029/2003JD004006, 2004.

Fan, S.-M., L.W. Horowitz, H. Levy II, and W.J. Moxim,
Impact of air pollution on
wet deposition of mineral dust aerosols
, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L02104,
doi:10.1029/2003GL018501, 2004.

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Global Atmospheric Model Development Team
(GAMDT),
The new Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global atmosphere and landmodel AM2/LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations, J. Climate,
17(24), 4641-4673, 2004.

Goldstein, A.H., D.B. Millet, M. McKay, L. Jaegle, L. Horowitz, O. Cooper, R.
Hudman, D.J. Jacob, S. Oltmans, and A. Clarke,
Impact of Asian emissions on observations at
Trinidad Head, California, during ITCT 2K2
, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D32S17,
doi:10.1029/2003JD004406R, 2004.

Tang, Y., G.R. Carmichael, L.W. Horowitz, I. Uno, J.-H. Woo, D.G. Streets,
D. Dabdub, G. Kurata, A. Sandu, J. Allan, E. Atlas, F. Flocke, L.G. Huey, R.O. Jakoubek,
D.B. Millet, P.K. Quinn, J.M. Roberts, D.R. Worsnop, A. Goldstein, S. Donnelly, S.
Schauffler, V. Stroud, K. Johnson, M.A. Avery, H.B. Singh, E.C. Apel,
Multiscale simulations of tropospheric chemistry in the eastern Pacific and on the
U.S. West Coast during spring 2002
,
J. Geophys. Res., 109, D23S11, doi:10.1029/2004JD004513, 2004.

Emmons, L.K., P. Hess, A. Klonecki, X. Tie, L. Horowitz, J.-F. Lamarque,
D. Kinnison, G. Brasseur, E. Atlas, E. Browell, C. Cantrell, F. Eisele,
R.L. Mauldin, J. Merrill, B. Ridley, and R. Shetter,
Budget of tropospheric
ozone during TOPSE from two chemical transport models
, J. Geophys. Res.,
108(D8), 8372, doi:10.1029/2002JD002665, 2003.

Gauss, M., G. Myhre, G. Pitari, M.J. Prather, I.S.A. Isaksen, T.K. Berntsen,
G.P. Brasseur, F.J. Dentener, R.G. Derwent, D.A. Hauglustaine, L.W.
Horowitz
, D.J. Jacob, M. Johnson, K.S. Law, L.J. Mickley, J.-F. Müller, P.-H.
Plantevin, J.A. Pyle, H.L. Rogers, D.S. Stevenson, J.K. Sundet, M. van
Weele, and O. Wild,
Radiative forcing in the 21st century due to ozone changes in
the troposphere and the lower stratosphere
, J. Geophys. Res.,
108(D9), 4292, doi:10.1029/2002JD002624, 2003.

Horowitz, L.W., S. Walters, D.L. Mauzerall, L.K. Emmons, P.J. Rasch,
C. Granier, X.X. Tie, J.-F. Lamarque, M.G. Schultz, G.S. Tyndall,
J.J. Orlando, and G.P. Brasseur,
A global simulation of
tropospheric ozone and related tracers: Description and evaluation of
MOZART, version 2
, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), 4784,
doi:10.1029/2002JD002853, 2003.

Prather, M., M. Gauss, T. Berntsen, I. Isaksen, J. Sundet, I. Bey, G.
Brasseur, F. Dentener, R. Derwent, D. Stevenson, L. Grenfell, D.
Hauglustaine, L. Horowitz, D. Jacob, L. Mickley, M. Lawrence, R. von Kuhlmann,
J.-F. Müller, G. Pitari, H. Rogers, M. Johnson, J. Pyle, K. Law,
M. van Weele, and O. Wild,
Fresh air in the 21st Century?,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(2), 1100, doi:10.1029/2002GL016285, 2003.

Contributing author to: Prather, M. and D. Ehhalt,
Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases,
in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis,
J.T. Houghton et al., eds., Cambridge University Press, pp. 239-287, 2001.

Tie, X., L. Emmons, L. Horowitz, G. Brasseur, B. Ridley, E. Atlas,
C. Stround, P. Hess, A. Klonecki, S. Madronich, R. Talbot, and J. Dibb,
Effect of sulfate aerosol on tropospheric NOx and ozone budgets: Model
simulations and TOPSE evidence
, J. Geophys. Res.,
108(D4), 8364, doi:10.1029/2001JD001508, 2003.

Wei, C.-F., V.R. Kotamarthi, O.J. Ogunsola, L.W. Horowitz, S. Walters,
D.J. Wuebbles, M.A. Avery, D.R. Blake, E.V. Browell, and G.W. Sachse,
Seasonal variability of ozone mixing ratios and budgets in the tropical
southern Pacific: A GCTM perspective
, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8235,
doi:10.1029/2001JD000772, 2002. [printed 108(D2), 2003]

Tie, X., G. Brasseur, L. Emmons, L. Horowitz, and D. Kinnison,
Effects of aerosols on tropospheric oxidants: A global model study,
J. Geophys. Res., 106, 22,931-22,964, 2001.

Mauzerall, D.L., D. Narita, H. Akimoto, L. Horowitz, S. Walters,
D. Hauglustaine, G. Brasseur,
Seasonal characteristics of tropospheric
ozone production and mixing ratios over East Asia: A global three-dimensional
chemical transport model analysis
, J. Geophys. Res., 105,
17,895-17,910, 2000.

Spivakovsky, C.M., J.A. Logan, S.A. Montzka, Y.J. Balkanski, M. Foreman-Fowler,
D.B.A. Jones, L.W. Horowitz, A.C. Fusco, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, M.J. Prather,
S.C. Wofsy, and M.B. McElroy,
Three-dimensional climatological distribution of
tropospheric OH: Update and evaluation
, J. Geophys. Res., 105,
8931-8980, 2000.

Horowitz, L.W., and D.J. Jacob,
Global impact of fossil fuel
combustion on atmospheric NOx
, J. Geophys. Res., 104,
23,823-23,840, 1999.

Horowitz, L.W., J. Liang, G.M. Gardner, and D.J. Jacob,
Export of reactive nitrogen from North America during summertime: Sensitivity to
hydrocarbon chemistry
, J. Geophys. Res., 103,
13,451-13,476, 1998.

Liang, J., L.W. Horowitz, D.J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A.M. Fiore, J.A. Logan,
G.M. Gardner, and J.W. Munger,
Seasonal budgets of reactive nitrogen species and ozone over the United States,and export fluxes to the global atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res.,
103, 13,435-13,450, 1998.

Olson, J., M. Prather, T. Berntsen, G. Carmichael, R. Chatfield,
P. Connell, R. Derwent, L. Horowitz, S. Jin, M. Kanakidou, P. Kasibhatla,
R. Kotamarthi, M. Kuhn, K. Law, J. Penner, L. Perliski, S. Sillman,
F. Stordal, A. Thompson and O. Wild,
Results from the IntergovernmentalPanel on Climatic Change photochemical model intercomparison(PhotoComp), J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5979-5991, 1997.

Staffelbach, T., A. Neftel, and L.W. Horowitz,
Photochemical oxidantformation over southern Switzerland, 2, Model results,
J. Geophys. Res., 102, 23,363-23,373, 1997.

Hirsch, A.I., J.W. Munger, D.J. Jacob, L.W. Horowitz, and A.H. Goldstein,
Seasonal variation of the ozone production efficiency per unit
NOx at Harvard Forest
, Massachusetts,
J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12,659-12,666, 1996.

Jacob, D.J., L.W. Horowitz, J.W. Munger, B.G. Heikes, R.R. Dickerson,
R.S. Artz, and W.C. Keene,
Seasonal transition from NOx– to
hydrocarbon-limited conditions for ozone production over the eastern
United States in September
, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 9315-9324, 1995.

Munger, J.W., D.J. Jacob, B.C. Daube, L.W. Horowitz, W.C. Keene,
and B.G. Heikes,
Formaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal in air and
cloudwater at a rural mountain site in central Virginia
,
J. Geophys. Res., 100, 9325-9333, 1995.