GFDL - Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

Biogeochemical Change Publications

Gnanadesikan, Anand, John P Dunne, and Rym Msadek, May 2014: Connecting Atlantic Temperature Variability and Biological Cycling in two Earth System Models. Journal of Marine Systems, 133, DOI:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.10.003.

Ishii, M, and John P Dunne, et al., February 2014: Air?sea CO2 flux in the Pacific Ocean for the period 1990?2009. Biogeosciences, 11(3), DOI:10.5194/bg-11-709-2014.

Bopp, L, and John P Dunne, et al., October 2013: Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models. Biogeosciences, 10(10), DOI:10.5194/bg-10-6225-2013.

Shevliakova, Elena,Ronald J Stouffer,  Sergey MalyshevJohn P Krasting, G C Hurtt, and S W Pacala, October 2013: Historical warming reduced due to enhanced land carbon uptake. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(42), DOI:10.1073/pnas.1314047110.

Dunne, John P., Jasmin John, Elena Shevliakova, Ronald J Stouffer, John P Krasting, Sergey Malyshev, P C D Milly, Lori T Sentman, Alistair Adcroft, William F Cooke,

Krista A
, Stephen M Griffies, Robert W Hallberg, Matthew J Harrison, Hiram Levy II, Andrew T Wittenberg, Peter Phillipps, and Niki Zadeh, April 2013: GFDL’s ESM2 global coupled climate-carbon Earth System Models Part II: Carbon system formulation and baseline simulation characteristics. Journal of Climate, 26(7), DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00150.1.

Winton, Michael, Stephen M Griffies, Bonita L Samuels, Jorge L Sarmiento, and Thomas L Frolicher, April 2013: Connecting Changing Ocean Circulation with Changing Climate. Journal of Climate, 26(7), DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00296.1.

Cocco, V, F Joos, M Steinacher, Thomas L Frolicher, L Bopp, and John P Dunne,
et al., March 2013: Oxygen and indicators of stress for marine life in multi-model global warming projections. Biogeosciences, 10(3), DOI:10.5194/bg-10-1849-2013.

Straub, M, M M Tremblay, D M Sigman, A S Studer, H Ren, J Robert Toggweiler, and G H Haug, March 2013: Nutrient conditions in the subpolar North Atlantic during the last glacial period reconstructed from foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes. Paleoceanography, 28, DOI:10.1002/palo.20013.

Pastor, M V., J B Palter, J L Pelegri, and John P Dunne, August 2013: Physical drivers of interannual chlorophyll variability in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, DOI:10.1002/jgrc.20254.

Resplandy, L, L Bopp, James C Orr, and John P Dunne, June 2013: Role of mode and intermediate waters in future ocean acidification: analysis of CMIP5 models. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(12), DOI:10.1002/grl.50414.

Vancoppenolle, M, L Bopp, G Madec, John P Dunne, T Ilyina, P R Halloran, and N Steiner, July 2013: Future Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity from CMIP5 Simulations: Uncertain Outcome, but Consistent Mechanisms. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 27, DOI:10.1002/gbc.20055.

Bianchi, D, John P Dunne, Jorge L Sarmiento, and E D Galbraith, May 2012: Data-based estimates of suboxia, denitrification and N2O production in the ocean, and their sensitivities to dissolved O2. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 26, GB2009, DOI:10.1029/2011GB004209.

Dunne, John P., B Hales, and J Robert Toggweiler, September 2012: Global calcite cycling constrained by sediment preservation controls. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 26, GB3023, DOI:10.1029/2010GB003935.

Kwon, E Y., M P Hain, D M Sigman, E D Galbraith, Jorge L Sarmiento, and J Robert Toggweiler, May 2012: North Atlantic ventilation of “southern-sourced” deep water in the glacial ocean. Paleoceanography, 27, PA2208, DOI:10.1029/2011PA002211.

Gnanadesikan, Anand, John P Dunne, and Jasmin John, March 2012: Understanding why the volume of suboxic waters does not increase over centuries of global warming in an Earth System Model. Biogeosciences, 9(3), DOI:10.5194/bg-9-1159-2012.

John, Jasmin, Arlene M Fiore, Vaishali Naik, Larry W Horowitz, and John P Dunne, December 2012: Climate versus emission drivers of methane lifetime from 1860-2100. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12(24), DOI:10.5194/acp-12-12021-2012.

Keller, K M., Thomas L Frolicher, and John P Dunne, et al., December 2012: Variability of the ocean carbon cycle in response to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Tellus B,  DOI:10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.18738.

Kwon, E Y., Jorge L Sarmiento, J Robert Toggweiler, and T DeVries, September 2011: The control of atmospheric pCO2 by ocean ventilation change: The effect of the oceanic storage of biogenic carbon. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB3026, DOI:10.1029/2011GB004059.

Fan, Song-Miao, and John P Dunne, August 2011: Models of iron speciation and concentration in the stratified epipelagic ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L15611, DOI:10.1029/2011GL048219.

Galbraith, E D., E Y Kwon, Anand Gnanadesikan, K B Rodgers, Stephen M Griffies, D Bianchi, Jorge L Sarmiento, John P Dunne, J Simeon, Richard D Slater, Andrew T Wittenberg, and Isaac M Held, August 2011: Climate Variability and Radiocarbon in the CM2Mc Earth System Model. Journal of Climate, 24(16), DOI:10.1175/2011JCLI3919.1.

Gnanadesikan, Anand, John P Dunne, and Jasmin John, July 2011: What ocean biogeochemical models can tell us about bottom-up control of ecosystem variability. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68(6), DOI:10.1093/icesjms/fsr068.

Palter, J B., Jorge L Sarmiento,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
J Simeon, and
Richard D Slater, November 2010: Fueling export production: nutrient return pathways from the deep ocean and their dependence on the Meridional Overturning Circulation. Biogeosciences, 7(11), DOI:10.5194/bg-7-3549-2010.

Denton, G H., R F Anderson, J Robert Toggweiler, R L Edwards, J M Schaefer, and A E Putnam, June 2010: The Last Glacial Termination. Science, 328(5986), DOI:10.1126/science.1184119.

Galbraith, E D., Anand Gnanadesikan, John P Dunne, and M R Hiscock, March 2010: Regional impacts of iron-light colimitation in a global biogeochemical model. Biogeosciences, 7(3), DOI:10.5194/bg-7-1043-2010.

Rykaczewski, R, and John P Dunne, November 2010: Enhanced nutrient supply to the California Current Ecosystem with global warming and increased stratification in an earth system model. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L21606, DOI:10.1029/2010GL045019.

Sarmiento, Jorge L., Richard D Slater, John P Dunne, Anand Gnanadesikan, and M R Hiscock, November 2010: Efficiency of small scale carbon mitigation by patch iron fertilization. Biogeosciences, 7(11), DOI:10.5194/bg-7-3593-2010.

Friedrichs, M A., and John P Dunne, et al., February 2009: Assessing the uncertainties of model estimates of primary productivity in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of Marine Systems, 76(1-2), DOI:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.010.

Henson, S A., D Raitsos, John P Dunne, and A McQuatters-Gollop, November 2009: Decadal variability in biogeochemical models: Comparison with a 50-year ocean colour dataset. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(L21601), DOI:10.1029/2009GL040874.

Rodgers, K B., Robert M Key, Anand Gnanadesikan, Jorge L Sarmiento, John P Dunne, and A R Jacobson, et al., September 2009: Using altimetry to help explain patchy changes in hydrographic carbon measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research, C09013, DOI:10.1029/2008JC005183.

Marinov, I, Anand Gnanadesikan, Jorge L Sarmiento, J Robert Toggweiler, M J Follows, and B K Mignone, July 2008: Impact of oceanic circulation on biological carbon storage in the ocean and atmospheric pCO2. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22, GB3007, DOI:10.1029/2007GB002958.

Gnanadesikan, Anand, and I Marinov, 2008: Export is not enough: Nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 364, DOI:10.3354/meps07550.

Toggweiler, J R., May 2008: Origin of the 100,000-year timescale in Antarctic temperatures and atmospheric CO2. Paleoceanography, 23, PA2211, DOI:10.1029/2006PA001405.

Marinov, I, M J Follows, Anand Gnanadesikan, Jorge L Sarmiento, and Richard D Slater, 2008: How does ocean biology affect atmospheric pCO2? Theory and models. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C07032, DOI:10.1029/2007JC004598.

Sarmiento, Jorge L., J Simeon, Anand Gnanadesikan, Nicolas Gruber, Robert M Key, and R Schlitzer, 2007: Deep ocean biogeochemistry of silicic acid and nitrate. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB1S90, DOI:10.1029/2006GB002720.

Deutsch, Curtis A., Jorge L Sarmiento, D M Sigman, Nicolas Gruber, and John P Dunne, 2007: Spatial coupling of nitrogen inputs and losses in the ocean. Nature, 445(7124), DOI:10.1038/nature05392.

Dunne, John P., Jorge L Sarmiento, and Anand Gnanadesikan, 2007: A synthesis of global particle export from the surface ocean and cycling through the ocean interior and on the seafloor. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB4006, DOI:10.1029/2006GB002907.

Friedrichs, M A., J A Dusenberry, L A Anderson, R A Armstrong, F Chai, J R Christian, S C Doney, John P Dunne, M Fujii, R Hood, D J McGillicuddy, Jr, J K Moore, M Schartau, Y H Spitz, and J D Wiggert, 2007: Assessment of skill and portability in regional marine biogeochemical models: Role of multiple planktonic groups. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, C08001, DOI:10.1029/2006JC003852.

Gnanadesikan, Anand, and Ronald J Stouffer, 2006: Diagnosing atmosphere-ocean general circulation model errors relevant to the terrestrial biosphere using the Köppen climate classification. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L22701, DOI:10.1029/2006GL028098.

Marinov, I, Anand Gnanadesikan, J Robert Toggweiler, and Jorge L Sarmiento, 2006: The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide. Nature, 441(7096), DOI:10.1038/nature04883.

Toggweiler, J R., J L Russell, and S Carson, 2006: Midlatitude westerlies, atmospheric CO2, and climate change during the ice ages. Paleoceanography, 21, PA2005, DOI:10.1029/2005PA001154.

Carr, M-E, and John P Dunne, et al., March 2006: A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color. Deep-Sea Research, Part II, 53(5-7), DOI:10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.01.028.

Marinov, I, Anand Gnanadesikan, J Robert Toggweiler, and Jorge L Sarmiento, 2006: The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide. Nature, 441(7096), DOI:10.1038/nature04883.

Jin, X, Nicolas Gruber, John P Dunne, Jorge L Sarmiento, and R A Armstrong, 2006: Diagnosing the contribution of phytoplankton functional groups to the production and export of particulate organic carbon, CaCO3, and opal from global nutrient and alkalinity distributions. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, GB2015, DOI:10.1029/2005GB002532.

Dunne, John P., R A Armstrong, Anand Gnanadesikan, and Jorge L Sarmiento, 2005: Empirical and mechanistic models for the particle export ratio. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19, GB4026, DOI:10.1029/2004GB002390.

Orr, James C., V J Fabry, O Aumont, L Bopp, S C Doney, R A Feely, Anand Gnanadesikan, Nicolas Gruber, A Ishida, F Joos, Robert M Key, K Lindsay, E Maier-Reimer, R Matear, Patrick Monfray, A Mouchet, R G Najjar, G-K Plattner, K B Rodgers, C L Sabine, Jorge L Sarmiento, R Schlitzer, Richard D Slater, I J Totterdell, M-F Weirig, Y Yamanaka, and A Yool, 2005: Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature, 437(7059), DOI:10.1038/nature04095.

Gnanadesikan, Anand, John P Dunne, Robert M Key, K Matsumoto, Jorge L Sarmiento, Richard D Slater, and P S Swathi, 2004: Oceanic ventilation and biogeochemical cycling: Understanding the physical mechanisms that produce realistic distributions of tracers and productivity. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18(4), GB4010, DOI:10.1029/2003GB002097.

Sarmiento, Jorge L., Nicolas Gruber, M Brzezinski, and John P Dunne, 2004: High-latitude controls of thermocline nutrients and low latitude biological productivity. Nature, 427, 56-60.

Doney, S C., Anand Gnanadesikan, Jorge L Sarmiento, and Richard D Slater, et al., 2004: Evaluating global ocean carbon models: The importance of realistic physics. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18, GB3017, DOI:10.1029/2003GB002150.

Sarmiento, Jorge L., John P Dunne, and R A Armstrong, 2004: Do We Now Understand The Ocean?s Biological Pump? U.S. JGOFS News, 12, 1-5.

Matsumoto, K, Jorge L Sarmiento, Robert M Key, O Aumont, J L Bullister, K Caldeira, J-M Campin, S C Doney, H Drange, J-C Dutay, M J Follows, Y Gao, Anand Gnanadesikan, Nicolas Gruber, A Ishida, F Joos, K Lindsay, E Maier-Reimer, J Marshall, R Matear, Patrick Monfray, A Mouchet, R G Najjar, G-K Plattner, R Schlitzer, Richard D Slater, P S Swathi, I J Totterdell, M-F Weirig, Y Yamanaka, A Yool, and James C Orr, 2004: Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics. Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L07303, DOI:10.1029/2003GL018970.

Gnanadesikan, Anand, Jorge L Sarmiento, and Richard D Slater, 2003: Effects of patchy ocean fertilization on atmospheric carbon dioxide and biological production. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17(2), 1050, DOI:10.1029/2002GB001940.

Toggweiler, J R., Anand Gnanadesikan,S Carson, R Murnane, and  Jorge L Sarmiento, 2003: Representation of the carbon cycle in box models and GCMs: 1. Solubility pump. Global Biogeochemical Cycles17(1), 1026, DOI:10.1029/2001GB001401.

Toggweiler, J R., R Murnane, S Carson, Anand Gnanadesikan,and Jorge L Sarmiento, 2003: Representation of the carbon cycle in box models and GCMs: 2. Organic pump. Global Biogeochemical Cycles17(1), 1027, DOI:10.1029/2001GB001841.

Watson, A J., James C Orr, Anand Gnanadesikan,Robert M Key, Jorge LSarmiento, and Richard D Slater, 2003: Carbon dioxide fluxes in the global ocean In Ocean Biogeochemistry: A Synthesis of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), Berlin, Germany, Springer-Verlag, 123-143.

Gnanadesikan,Anand, Richard D Slater, Nicolas Gruber, and Jorge L Sarmiento, 2002: Oceanic vertical exchange and new production: a comparison between models and observations. Deep-Sea Research, Part II, 49(1-3), 363-401.

Aufdenkampe, A K., J J McCarthy, C Navarette, M Rodier, John P Dunne, and J W Murray, 2002: Biogeochemical controls on new production in the tropical Pacific. Deep-Sea Research, Part II, 49(13-14), DOI:10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00051-6.

Sarmiento, Jorge L., John P Dunne, Anand Gnanadesikan, Robert M Key, K Matsumoto, and  Richard D Slater, 2002: A new estimate of the CaCO3 to organic carbon export ratio. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16(4), DOI:10.1029/2002GB001919.

Orr, James C., E Maier-Reimer, U Mikolajewicz, Patrick Monfray, Jorge L Sarmiento, J Robert Toggweiler, N K Taylor, J Palmer, Nicolas Gruber, C L Sabine, C Le Quéré, Robert M Key, and J Boutin, 2001: Estimates of anthropogenic carbon uptake from four three-dimensional global ocean models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15(1), 43-60.

Chai, F, S T Lindley, J Robert Toggweiler, and R T Barber, 2000: Testing the importance of iron and grazing in the maintenance of the high nitrate condition in the equatorial Pacific Ocean: A physical-biological model study In The Changing Ocean Carbon Cycle, Cambridge University Press, 155-186.

Suntharalingam, P, Jorge L Sarmiento, and J Robert Toggweiler, 2000: Global significance of nitrous-oxide production and transport from oceanic low-oxygen zones: A modeling study.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14(4), 1353-1370.

Toggweiler, J R., 1999: Oceanography: An ultimate limiting nutrientNature, 400(6744), 511-512.

Toggweiler, J R., 1999: Variation of atmospheric CO2 by ventilation of the ocean’s deepest water. Paleoceanography, 14(5), 571-588.

Schlosser, P, W M Smethie, Jr, and J Robert Toggweiler, 1998: Introduction to special section: Maurice Ewing Symposium on applications of trace substance measurements to Oceanographic problemsJournal of Geophysical Research, 103(C8), 15,815.

Chavez, F P., and J Robert Toggweiler, 1995: Physical estimates of global new production: The upwelling contribution In Dahlem Workshop on Upwelling in the Ocean: Modern Processes and Ancient Records, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, 313-320.

Lampitt, R, and J Robert Toggweiler, et al., 1995: Group report: Does upwelling have a significant influence on the global carbon cycle? In Upwelling in the Ocean: Modern Processes and Ancient Records, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, 383-404.

Toggweiler, J R., 1995: Anthropogenic CO2: The natural carbon cycle reclaims center stage. Reviews of Geophysics, 33(Supplement), 1249-1252.

Toggweiler, J R., and S Carson, 1995: What are upwelling systems contributing to the ocean’s carbon and nutrient budgets? In Upwelling in the Ocean: Modern Processes and Ancient Records, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, 337-360.

Sarmiento, Jorge L.,  Richard D Slater, M J Fasham, H W Ducklow, J Robert Toggweiler, and G T Evans, 1993: A seasonal three-dimensional ecosystem model of nitrogen cycling in the North Atlantic euphotic zone.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 7(2), 417-450.

Toggweiler, J R., 1993: Carbon overconsumption. Nature363(6426), 210-211.

Toggweiler, J R., and James C Orr, 1993: Summary of Workshop on Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Ocean In The Global Carbon Cycle, NATO ASI Series – Vol. 115. Heidelberg, Germany, Springer-Verlag, 583-584.

Toggweiler,J R., and Bonita L Samuels, 1993: New radiocarbon constraints on the upwelling of abyssal water to the ocean’s surface In The Global Carbon Cycle, NATO ASI Series – Vol. 115. Heidelberg, Germany, Springer-Verlag,  333-366.

Najjar, R G., Jorge L Sarmiento, and J Robert Toggweiler, 1992: Downward transport and fate of organic matter in the ocean: Simulations with a general circulation model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 6(1), 45-76.

Toggweiler, J R., 1992: Catalytic conversions. Nature356(6371), 665-666.

Toggweiler, J R., Keith W Dixon, and W Broecker, 1991: The Peru upwelling and the ventilation of the South Pacific thermocline. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96(C11), 20,467-20,497.

Toggweiler, J R., 1990: Bombs and ocean carbon cycles. Nature, 347, 122-123.

Toggweiler, J R., 1990: Diving into the organic soup. Nature, 345, 203-204.

Sarmiento, Jorge L., M J Fasham, U Siegenthaler, R G Najjar, and J Robert Toggweiler, 1989: In Models of Chemical Cycling in the Oceans: Progress Report II, Ocean Tracers Laboratory Report #6, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University, 46 pp.

Toggweiler, J R., 1989: Are rising and falling particles microbial elevators? Nature, 337, 691-692.

Toggweiler, J R., 1989: Is the downward dissolved organic matter (DOM) flux important in carbon transport? In Productivity of the Ocean: Present and Past, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, 65-83.

Toggweiler, J R., Keith W Dixon, and Kirk Bryan, 1989: Simulations of radiocarbon in a coarse-resolution world ocean model 1. Steady state prebomb distributions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94(C6), 8217-8242.

Toggweiler, J R., Keith W Dixon, and Kirk Bryan, 1989: Simulations of radiocarbon in a coarse-resolution world ocean model 2. Distributions of bomb-produced carbon 14. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94(C6), 8243-8264.

Sarmiento, Jorge L., T D Herbert, and J Robert Toggweiler, 1988: Causes of anoxia in the world oceanGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles, 2(2), 115-128.

Sarmiento, Jorge L., T D Herbert, and J Robert Toggweiler, 1988: Mediterranean nutrient balance and episodes of anoxia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2(4), 427-444.

Sarmiento, Jorge L., J Robert Toggweiler, and R G Najjar, 1988: Ocean carbon-cycle dynamics and atmospheric pCO2. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A, 325, 3-21.

Toggweiler, J R., 1988: Deep-sea carbon, a burning issue. Nature334, 468.

Broecker, W, W C Patzert, J Robert Toggweiler, and M Stuiver, 1986: Hydrography, chemistry, and radioisotopes in the southeast Asian basins. Journal of Geophysical Research91(C12), 14,345-14,354.

Sarmiento, Jorge L., and J Robert Toggweiler, 1986: A preliminary model of the role of upper ocean chemical dynamics in determining oceanic oxygen and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels In Dynamic Processes in the Chemistry of the Upper Ocean, Plenum Press, 233-240.

Toggweiler, J R., and Jorge L Sarmiento, 1985: Glacial to interglacial changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide: The critical role of ocean surface water in high latitudes In The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2: Natural Variations Archean to Present, Geophysical Monograph 32, Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 163-184.

Sarmiento, Jorge L., and J Robert Toggweiler, 1984: New model for the role of the oceans in determining atmospheric PCO2. Nature, 308(5960), 621-624.