GFDL - Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

Biogeochemical Change Publications

Gnanadesikan, Anand, John P Dunne, and Rym Msadek, May 2014: Connecting Atlantic Temperature Variability and Biological Cycling in two Earth System Models. Journal of Marine Systems, 133, DOI:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.10.003.

Ishii, M, and John P Dunne, et al., February 2014: Air?sea CO2 flux in the Pacific Ocean for the period 1990?2009. Biogeosciences, 11(3), DOI:10.5194/bg-11-709-2014.

Bopp, L, and John P Dunne, et al., October 2013: Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models. Biogeosciences, 10(10), DOI:10.5194/bg-10-6225-2013.

Shevliakova,
Elena,

Ronald J
Stouffer,

Sergey Malyshev,
John P Krasting,
G C Hurtt, and S W Pacala, October 2013: Historical warming reduced
due to enhanced land carbon uptake
. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences
, 110(42), DOI:10.1073/pnas.1314047110.

Dunne,
John P.
,
Jasmin John,
Elena Shevliakova,
Ronald
J Stouffer
,
John P Krasting,
Sergey Malyshev,
P C D Milly,
Lori T Sentman,
Alistair
Adcroft
, William F Cooke,

<a href="http://gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/results.php?author=1036">Krista A 
Dunne</a>,
<a href="http://gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/results.php?author=1047">Stephen 
M Griffies</a>, 
<a href="http://gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/results.php?author=1050">Robert W 
Hallberg</a>,
<a href="http://gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/results.php?author=1052">Matthew 
J Harrison, </a>
<a href="http://gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/results.php?author=1066">Hiram Levy 
II</a>, <a href="http://gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/results.php?author=1110">
Andrew T Wittenberg, </a>
<a href="http://gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/results.php?author=1082">Peter Phillipps</a>, 
and <a href="http://gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/results.php?author=3651">Niki 
Zadeh</a>, April 2013: <strong>GFDL's ESM2 global coupled climate-carbon Earth 
System Models Part II: Carbon system formulation and baseline simulation characteristics</strong>.
<em>Journal of Climate</em>, <strong>26(7)</strong>, DOI:<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00150.1">10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00150.1</a>.
<br />

Winton,
Michael,

Stephen
M Griffies,

Bonita L
Samuels,

Jorge L
Sarmiento
, and Thomas L Frolicher, April 2013: Connecting Changing
Ocean Circulation with Changing Climate
. Journal of Climate,
26(7), DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00296.1.

Cocco, V, F Joos, M Steinacher, Thomas L Frolicher, L Bopp, and
John P Dunne,
et al., March 2013: Oxygen and indicators of stress for marine life
in multi-model global warming projections
. Biogeosciences,
10(3), DOI:10.5194/bg-10-1849-2013.

Straub, M, M M Tremblay, D M Sigman, A S Studer, H Ren,
J Robert
Toggweiler
, and G H Haug, March 2013: Nutrient conditions in the
subpolar North Atlantic during the last glacial period reconstructed from foraminifera-bound
nitrogen isotopes
. Paleoceanography, 28,
DOI:10.1002/palo.20013.

Pastor, M V., J B Palter, J L Pelegri, and John P Dunne, August 2013: Physical drivers of interannual chlorophyll variability in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, DOI:10.1002/jgrc.20254.

Resplandy, L, L Bopp, James C Orr, and
John P Dunne,
June 2013: Role of mode and intermediate waters in future ocean acidification:
analysis of CMIP5 models
. Geophysical Research Letters,
40(12), DOI:10.1002/grl.50414.

Vancoppenolle, M, L Bopp, G Madec,
John P Dunne,
T Ilyina, P R Halloran, and N Steiner, July 2013: Future Arctic Ocean
Primary Productivity from CMIP5 Simulations: Uncertain Outcome, but Consistent
Mechanisms
. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 27,
DOI:10.1002/gbc.20055.

Bianchi, D,
John P Dunne,
Jorge
L Sarmiento
, and E D Galbraith, May 2012: Data-based estimates of
suboxia, denitrification and N2O production in the ocean, and their
sensitivities to dissolved O2
. Global Biogeochemical
Cycles
, 26, GB2009, DOI:10.1029/2011GB004209.

Dunne,
John P., B Hales, and
J Robert
Toggweiler
, September 2012: Global calcite cycling constrained by
sediment preservation controls
. Global Biogeochemical Cycles,
26, GB3023, DOI:10.1029/2010GB003935.

Kwon, E Y., M P Hain, D M Sigman, E D Galbraith,
Jorge L
Sarmiento, and

J Robert
Toggweiler
, May 2012: North Atlantic ventilation of “southern-sourced”
deep water in the glacial ocean
. Paleoceanography,
27
, PA2208, DOI:10.1029/2011PA002211.

<br />

Gnanadesikan,
Anand,

John P Dunne,
and

Jasmin John
, March 2012: Understanding why the volume of suboxic
waters does not increase over centuries of global warming in an Earth System
Model
. Biogeosciences, 9(3), DOI:10.5194/bg-9-1159-2012.

John,
Jasmin,

Arlene M
Fiore,

Vaishali
Naik,

Larry W
Horowitz
, and
John P Dunne,
December 2012: Climate versus emission drivers of methane lifetime from
1860-2100
. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12(24),
DOI:10.5194/acp-12-12021-2012.

Keller, K M., Thomas L Frolicher, and
John P Dunne,
et al., December 2012: Variability of the ocean carbon cycle in response
to the North Atlantic Oscillation
. Tellus B,  DOI:10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.18738.

Kwon, E Y.,
Jorge L
Sarmiento,

J Robert
Toggweiler
, and T DeVries, September 2011: The control of atmospheric
pCO2 by ocean ventilation change: The effect of the oceanic storage
of biogenic carbon
. Global Biogeochemical Cycles,
25
, GB3026, DOI:10.1029/2011GB004059.

Fan,
Song-Miao
, and
John P Dunne,
August 2011: Models of iron speciation and concentration in the stratified
epipelagic ocean
. Geophysical Research Letters, 38,
L15611, DOI:10.1029/2011GL048219.

Galbraith, E D., E Y Kwon,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
K B Rodgers,

Stephen
M Griffies, D Bianchi,

Jorge L
Sarmiento,

John P Dunne,
J Simeon,

Richard
D Slater,

Andrew T
Wittenberg
, and
Isaac M
Held
, August 2011: Climate Variability and Radiocarbon in the CM2Mc
Earth System Model
. Journal of Climate, 24(16),
DOI:10.1175/2011JCLI3919.1.

Gnanadesikan,
Anand,

John P Dunne,
and

Jasmin John
, July 2011: What ocean biogeochemical models can tell
us about bottom-up control of ecosystem variability
. ICES Journal
of Marine Science
, 68(6), DOI:10.1093/icesjms/fsr068.

Palter, J B.,
Jorge L
Sarmiento,

Anand Gnanadesikan,
J Simeon, and

Richard
D Slater
, November 2010: Fueling export production: nutrient return
pathways from the deep ocean and their dependence on the Meridional Overturning
Circulation
. Biogeosciences, 7(11), DOI:10.5194/bg-7-3549-2010.

Denton, G H., R F Anderson,
J Robert
Toggweiler
, R L Edwards, J M Schaefer, and A E Putnam, June 2010:
The Last Glacial Termination. Science, 328(5986),
DOI:10.1126/science.1184119.

<br />

Galbraith, E D.,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
John
P Dunne
, and M R Hiscock, March 2010: Regional impacts of iron-light
colimitation in a global biogeochemical model
. Biogeosciences,
7(3), DOI:10.5194/bg-7-1043-2010.

Rykaczewski, R, and
John P Dunne,
November 2010: Enhanced nutrient supply to the California Current Ecosystem
with global warming and increased stratification in an earth system model
.
Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L21606, DOI:10.1029/2010GL045019.

<br />

Sarmiento,
Jorge L.,

Richard
D Slater,

John P Dunne,
Anand
Gnanadesikan
, and M R Hiscock, November 2010: Efficiency of small
scale carbon mitigation by patch iron fertilization
. Biogeosciences,
7(11), DOI:10.5194/bg-7-3593-2010.

Friedrichs, M A., and
John P Dunne,
et al., February 2009: Assessing the uncertainties of model estimates
of primary productivity in the tropical Pacific Ocean
. Journal
of Marine Systems
, 76(1-2), DOI:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.010.

Henson, S A., D Raitsos,
John P Dunne,
and A McQuatters-Gollop, November 2009: Decadal variability in biogeochemical
models: Comparison with a 50-year ocean colour dataset
. Geophysical
Research Letters
, 36(L21601), DOI:10.1029/2009GL040874.

Rodgers, K B.,
Robert M
Key,

Anand Gnanadesikan,
Jorge
L Sarmiento,

John P Dunne,
and A R Jacobson, et al., September 2009: Using altimetry to help explain
patchy changes in hydrographic carbon measurements
. Journal of
Geophysical Research
, C09013, DOI:10.1029/2008JC005183.

Marinov, I,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
Jorge
L Sarmiento,

J Robert
Toggweiler
, M J Follows, and B K Mignone, July 2008: Impact of oceanic
circulation on biological carbon storage in the ocean and atmospheric pCO2
.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22, GB3007, DOI:10.1029/2007GB002958.

Gnanadesikan,
Anand
, and I Marinov, 2008: Export is not enough: Nutrient cycling
and carbon sequestration
. Marine Ecology Progress Series,
364, DOI:10.3354/meps07550.

Toggweiler,
J R., May 2008: Origin of the 100,000-year timescale in Antarctic temperatures
and atmospheric CO2
. Paleoceanography,
23
, PA2211, DOI:
10.1029/2006PA001405.

<br />

Marinov, I, M J Follows,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
Jorge
L Sarmiento
, and
Richard
D Slater
, 2008: How does ocean biology affect atmospheric pCO2?
Theory and models
. Journal of Geophysical Research,
113, C07032, DOI:10.1029/2007JC004598.

Sarmiento,
Jorge L.
, J Simeon,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
Nicolas Gruber,
Robert M
Key
, and R Schlitzer, 2007: Deep ocean biogeochemistry of silicic
acid and nitrate
. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21,
GB1S90, DOI:10.1029/2006GB002720.

Deutsch, Curtis A.,
Jorge L
Sarmiento
, D M Sigman, Nicolas Gruber, and
John P Dunne,
2007: Spatial coupling of nitrogen inputs and losses in the ocean.
Nature, 445(7124), DOI:10.1038/nature05392.

Dunne,
John P.,

Jorge L
Sarmiento
, and
Anand Gnanadesikan,
2007: A synthesis of global particle export from the surface ocean and
cycling through the ocean interior and on the seafloor
. Global
Biogeochemical Cycles
, 21, GB4006, DOI:10.1029/2006GB002907.

Friedrichs, M A., J A Dusenberry, L A Anderson, R A Armstrong, F Chai, J
R Christian, S C Doney,
John P Dunne,
M Fujii, R Hood, D J McGillicuddy, Jr, J K Moore, M Schartau, Y H Spitz, and
J D Wiggert, 2007: Assessment of skill and portability in regional marine
biogeochemical models: Role of multiple planktonic groups
. Journal
of Geophysical Research
, 112, C08001, DOI:10.1029/2006JC003852.

Gnanadesikan,
Anand, and

Ronald J
Stouffer, 2006: Diagnosing atmosphere-ocean general circulation model
errors relevant to the terrestrial biosphere using the Köppen climate classification
.
Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L22701, DOI:
10.1029/2006GL028098.

Marinov, I,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
J Robert
Toggweiler
, and
Jorge L
Sarmiento, 2006: The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.
Nature, 441(7096), DOI:
10.1038/nature04883.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, J L Russell, and S Carson, 2006: Midlatitude westerlies, atmospheric
CO2, and climate change during the ice ages
. Paleoceanography,
21, PA2005, DOI:10.1029/2005PA001154.

Carr, M-E, and
John P Dunne,
et al., March 2006: A comparison of global estimates of marine primary
production from ocean color
. Deep-Sea Research, Part II,
53(5-7), DOI:10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.01.028.

Marinov, I,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
J Robert
Toggweiler
, and
Jorge L
Sarmiento
, 2006: The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.
Nature, 441(7096), DOI:10.1038/nature04883.

Jin, X, Nicolas Gruber,
John P Dunne,
Jorge
L Sarmiento
, and R A Armstrong, 2006: Diagnosing the contribution
of phytoplankton functional groups to the production and export of particulate
organic carbon, CaCO3, and opal from global nutrient and alkalinity distributions
.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20, GB2015, DOI:10.1029/2005GB002532.

Dunne,
John P.
, R A Armstrong,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
and

Jorge L Sarmiento
, 2005: Empirical and mechanistic models for the
particle export ratio
. Global Biogeochemical Cycles,
19, GB4026, DOI:10.1029/2004GB002390.

Orr, James C., V J Fabry, O Aumont, L Bopp, S C Doney, R A Feely,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
Nicolas Gruber, A Ishida, F Joos,
Robert M
Key
, K Lindsay, E Maier-Reimer, R Matear, Patrick Monfray, A Mouchet, R
G Najjar, G-K Plattner, K B Rodgers, C L Sabine,
Jorge L
Sarmiento
, R Schlitzer,
Richard
D Slater
, I J Totterdell, M-F Weirig, Y Yamanaka, and A Yool, 2005:
Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and
its impact on calcifying organisms
. Nature, 437(7059),
DOI:10.1038/nature04095.

Gnanadesikan,
Anand,

John P Dunne,
Robert
M Key
, K Matsumoto,
Jorge L
Sarmiento,

Richard
D Slater
, and P S Swathi, 2004: Oceanic ventilation and biogeochemical
cycling: Understanding the physical mechanisms that produce realistic distributions
of tracers and productivity
. Global Biogeochemical Cycles,
18(4), GB4010, DOI:10.1029/2003GB002097.

Sarmiento,
Jorge L.
, Nicolas Gruber, M Brzezinski, and
John P Dunne,
2004: High-latitude controls of thermocline nutrients and low latitude
biological productivity
. Nature, 427, 56-60.

Doney,
S C.,

Anand Gnanadesikan,
Jorge
L Sarmiento
, and
Richard
D Slater
, et al., 2004: Evaluating global ocean carbon models: The
importance of realistic physics
. Global Biogeochemical Cycles,
18, GB3017, DOI:10.1029/2003GB002150.

Sarmiento,
Jorge L.,

John P Dunne,
and R A Armstrong, 2004: Do We Now Understand The Ocean?s Biological
Pump?
U.S. JGOFS News, 12, 1-5.

Matsumoto,
K,
Jorge
L Sarmiento,

Robert M
Key
, O Aumont, J L Bullister, K Caldeira, J-M Campin, S C Doney, H Drange,
J-C Dutay, M J Follows, Y Gao,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
Nicolas Gruber, A Ishida, F Joos, K Lindsay, E Maier-Reimer, J Marshall, R Matear,
Patrick Monfray, A Mouchet, R G Najjar, G-K Plattner, R Schlitzer,
Richard
D Slater
, P S Swathi, I J Totterdell, M-F Weirig, Y Yamanaka, A Yool, and
James C Orr, 2004: Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based
metrics
. Geophysical Research Letters, 31,
L07303, DOI:10.1029/2003GL018970.

Gnanadesikan,
Anand,

Jorge L
Sarmiento
, and
Richard
D Slater
, 2003: Effects of patchy ocean fertilization on atmospheric
carbon dioxide and biological production
. Global Biogeochemical
Cycles
, 17(2), 1050, DOI:10.1029/2002GB001940.

Toggweiler,
J R.,

Anand Gnanadesikan,
S Carson, R Murnane, and

Jorge L
Sarmiento
, 2003: Representation of the carbon cycle in box models
and GCMs: 1. Solubility pump
. Global Biogeochemical Cycles,
17(1), 1026, DOI:10.1029/2001GB001401.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, R Murnane, S Carson,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
and

Jorge L Sarmiento
, 2003: Representation of the carbon cycle in box
models and GCMs: 2. Organic pump
. Global Biogeochemical Cycles,
17(1), 1027, DOI:10.1029/2001GB001841.

Watson, A J., James C Orr,
Anand Gnanadesikan,
Robert
M Key,

Jorge L
Sarmiento, and

Richard
D Slater
, 2003: Carbon dioxide fluxes in the global ocean
In Ocean Biogeochemistry: A Synthesis of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study
(JGOFS)
, Berlin, Germany, Springer-Verlag, 123-143.

Gnanadesikan,
Anand,

Richard
D Slater, Nicolas Gruber, and

Jorge L
Sarmiento
, 2002: Oceanic vertical exchange and new production: a
comparison between models and observations
. Deep-Sea Research,
Part II
, 49(1-3), 363-401.

Aufdenkampe, A K., J J McCarthy, C Navarette, M Rodier,
John P Dunne,
and J W Murray, 2002: Biogeochemical controls on new production in the
tropical Pacific
. Deep-Sea Research, Part II, 49(13-14),
DOI:10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00051-6.

Sarmiento,
Jorge L.,

John P Dunne,
Anand
Gnanadesikan,

Robert M
Key, K Matsumoto, and

Richard
D Slater
, 2002: A new estimate of the CaCO3 to organic carbon export
ratio
. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16(4),
DOI:10.1029/2002GB001919.

Orr, James C., E Maier-Reimer, U Mikolajewicz, Patrick Monfray,
Jorge L
Sarmiento,

J Robert
Toggweiler, N K Taylor, J Palmer, Nicolas Gruber, C L Sabine, C Le Quéré,
Robert
M Key
, and J Boutin, 2001: Estimates of anthropogenic carbon uptake
from four three-dimensional global ocean models
. Global Biogeochemical
Cycles
, 15(1), 43-60.

Chai, F, S T Lindley,
J Robert
Toggweiler
, and R T Barber, 2000: Testing the importance of iron
and grazing in the maintenance of the high nitrate condition in the equatorial
Pacific Ocean: A physical-biological model study
In The Changing
Ocean Carbon Cycle
, Cambridge University Press, 155-186.

<br />

Suntharalingam, P,
Jorge L
Sarmiento
, and
J Robert
Toggweiler
, 2000: Global significance of nitrous-oxide production
and transport from oceanic low-oxygen zones: A modeling study
.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
, 14(4), 1353-1370.

<br />

Toggweiler,
J R.
, 1999: Oceanography: An ultimate limiting nutrient.
Nature, 400(6744), 511-512.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, 1999: Variation of atmospheric CO2 by ventilation
of the ocean’s deepest water
. Paleoceanography, 14(5),
571-588.

Schlosser, P, W M Smethie, Jr, and
J Robert
Toggweiler
, 1998: Introduction to special section: Maurice Ewing
Symposium on applications of trace substance measurements to Oceanographic problems
.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(C8), 15,815.

<br />

Chavez, F P., and
J Robert
Toggweiler
, 1995: Physical estimates of global new production: The
upwelling contribution
In Dahlem Workshop on Upwelling in the Ocean:
Modern Processes and Ancient Records
, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons,
313-320.

Lampitt, R, and
J Robert
Toggweiler
, et al., 1995: Group report: Does upwelling have a significant
influence on the global carbon cycle?
In Upwelling in the Ocean:
Modern Processes and Ancient Records
, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons,
383-404.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, 1995: Anthropogenic CO2: The natural carbon cycle
reclaims center stage
. Reviews of Geophysics, 33(Supplement),
1249-1252.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, and S Carson, 1995: What are upwelling systems contributing
to the ocean’s carbon and nutrient budgets?
In Upwelling in the
Ocean: Modern Processes and Ancient Records
, Chichester, UK, John Wiley
& Sons, 337-360.

<br />


Sarmiento, Jorge L.,

Richard
D Slater
, M J Fasham, H W Ducklow,
J Robert
Toggweiler
, and G T Evans, 1993: A seasonal three-dimensional ecosystem
model of nitrogen cycling in the North Atlantic euphotic zone
.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
, 7(2), 417-450.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, 1993: Carbon overconsumption. Nature,
363(6426), 210-211.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, and James C Orr, 1993: Summary of Workshop on Dissolved Organic
Carbon in the Ocean
In The Global Carbon Cycle, NATO ASI Series
– Vol. 115. Heidelberg, Germany, Springer-Verlag, 583-584.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, and
Bonita L
Samuels
, 1993: New radiocarbon constraints on the upwelling of abyssal
water to the ocean’s surface
In The Global Carbon Cycle, NATO
ASI Series – Vol. 115. Heidelberg, Germany, Springer-Verlag,  333-366.

Najjar, R G.,
Jorge L
Sarmiento
, and
J Robert
Toggweiler
, 1992: Downward transport and fate of organic matter
in the ocean: Simulations with a general circulation model
. Global
Biogeochemical Cycles
, 6(1), 45-76.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, 1992: Catalytic conversions. Nature,
356(6371), 665-666.

Toggweiler,
J R.,

Keith W
Dixon
, and W Broecker, 1991: The Peru upwelling and the ventilation
of the South Pacific thermocline
. Journal of Geophysical Research,
96(C11), 20,467-20,497.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, 1990: Bombs and ocean carbon cycles. Nature,
347, 122-123.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, 1990: Diving into the organic soup. Nature,
345, 203-204.

<span>[
<a href="http://gfdl.noaa.gov/bibliography/related_files/jrt9002.pdf">PDF</a> 
]</span><br />

Sarmiento,
Jorge L.
, M J Fasham, U Siegenthaler, R G Najjar, and
J Robert
Toggweiler
, 1989: In Models of Chemical Cycling in the Oceans: Progress
Report II
, Ocean Tracers Laboratory Report #6, Princeton, NJ, Princeton
University, 46 pp.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, 1989: Are rising and falling particles microbial elevators?
Nature, 337, 691-692.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, 1989: Is the downward dissolved organic matter (DOM) flux
important in carbon transport?
In Productivity of the Ocean: Present
and Past
, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, 65-83.

Toggweiler,
J R.,

Keith W
Dixon
, and
Kirk Bryan,
1989: Simulations of radiocarbon in a coarse-resolution world ocean
model 1. Steady state prebomb distributions
. Journal of Geophysical
Research
, 94(C6), 8217-8242.

Toggweiler,
J R.,

Keith W
Dixon
, and
Kirk Bryan,
1989: Simulations of radiocarbon in a coarse-resolution world ocean
model 2. Distributions of bomb-produced carbon 14
. Journal of Geophysical
Research
, 94(C6), 8243-8264.

Sarmiento,
Jorge L.
, T D Herbert, and
J Robert
Toggweiler
, 1988: Causes of anoxia in the world ocean.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2(2), 115-128.

Sarmiento,
Jorge L.
, T D Herbert, and
J Robert
Toggweiler
, 1988: Mediterranean nutrient balance and episodes of
anoxia
. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2(4),
427-444.

Sarmiento,
Jorge L.,

J Robert
Toggweiler
, and R G Najjar, 1988: Ocean carbon-cycle dynamics and
atmospheric pCO2
. Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society of London, A
, 325, 3-21.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, 1988: Deep-sea carbon, a burning issue. Nature,
334, 468.

Broecker, W, W C Patzert,
J Robert
Toggweiler
, and M Stuiver, 1986: Hydrography, chemistry, and radioisotopes
in the southeast Asian basins
. Journal of Geophysical Research,
91(C12), 14,345-14,354.

Sarmiento,
Jorge L.
, and
J Robert
Toggweiler
, 1986: A preliminary model of the role of upper ocean
chemical dynamics in determining oceanic oxygen and atmospheric carbon dioxide
levels
In Dynamic Processes in the Chemistry of the Upper Ocean,
Plenum Press, 233-240.

Toggweiler,
J R.
, and
Jorge L
Sarmiento
, 1985: Glacial to interglacial changes in atmospheric
carbon dioxide: The critical role of ocean surface water in high latitudes

In The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2: Natural Variations Archean
to Present
, Geophysical Monograph 32, Washington, DC, American Geophysical
Union, 163-184.

Sarmiento,
Jorge L.
, and
J Robert
Toggweiler
, 1984: New model for the role of the oceans in determining
atmospheric PCO2
. Nature, 308(5960),
621-624.