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SHiELD: System for High-resolution prediction on Earth-to-Local Domains

 

SHiELD is a Unified Forecast System (UFS) prototype atmosphere model showing the power of a unified prediction system across a variety of time and space scales designed for a wide array of applications. It shows the abilities of the Finite-Volume Cubed-Sphere Dynamical Core (FV3), especially its flexible nonhydrostatic dynamics, variable-resolution capabilities, and integrated physics, coupled with the elegance of the Flexible Modeling System (FMS) framework. Improvements in FV3 or the physics in SHiELD can be easily transferred into other FV3-based and UFS models, including the GFDL Modeling Suite and the Next-Generation Global Prediction System.

Configuration Use Domain Integration Length
SHiELD Medium-range weather prediction Global 13-km with 91 vertical levels 240 hours (10 days)
C-SHiELD Short-to-medium-range contiguous US severe weather prediction Global 20-to-9-km stretched, 3-km CONUS nest, 63 vertical levels 126 hours (5.25 days)
T-SHiELD Medium-range Atlantic tropical cyclone and hurricane prediction Global 13-km, 3.5-km tropical Atlantic nest, 63 vertical levels 168 hours (7 days), hurricane season only
S-SHiELD Subseasonal-to-seasonal prediction Global 25-km with 91 vertical levels 30 to 90 days, with up to 10 ensemble members
X-SHiELD eXperimental DYAMOND-class global cloud-resolving model (GCRM) Global 3.25-km with 79 vertical levels 40 days
R-SHiELD Regional limited-area model (LAM) configuration Regional 13, 3, or 1 km 54 hours

(Roman case indicates near real-time Tier 1 configurations; Italics indicate preliminary Tier 2 configurations not run in real-time)

The 202101 release of the FV3 from GFDL can be accessed via Fork FV3 on GitHub

In-Depth Information for Near Real-Time Configurations

 

2020 SHiELD Global Prediction System

 

SHiELD 2020 real-time: https://shield.gfdl.noaa.gov/?model=SHiELD_2020

Updated: August 5, 2020
Lead: Linjiong Zhou
Operator: Matt Morin
Contributors: Kun Gao, Lucas Harris, Mingjing Tong, and the GFDL FV3 Team

Initialized 00Z and 12Z daily from operational GFSv15 analyses
Integrated to 10 days
Horizontal Resolution: 13-km global domain (C768)
Vertical Resolution: 91 layers, lowest mid-level at ~12 m, model top at 40 Pa
Computational Performance: 80 min/10 days using 3072 cores on Gaea C4

2020 FV3 Dynamical Core:

  • Nonhydrostatic Lagrangian Dynamics
  • Positive-definite Tracer Advection
  • GFDL 2020 Inline Cloud Microphysics

2020 SHiELD (GFS) Physics Package:

  • TKE-EDMF Planetary Boundary Layer with GFDL 2020 updates
  • NCEP 2017 Scale-Aware SAS (shallow and deep) Convection
  • RRTM Radiation and 2020 GFDL cloud-radiation interaction
  • GFS (orographic and convective) Gravity Wave Drag with GFDL 2018 updates

SHiELD Ocean Component:

  • 2019 Mixed-layer Ocean Model
  • GFDL ocean surface roughness parameterization

SHiELD (GFS) Land Component:

  • High-resolution Noah Land Model with GFDL 2019 updates
References:

 

2021 C-SHiELD Global-to-Regional CONUS Prediction System

 

C-SHiELD 2021 real-time: https://shield.gfdl.noaa.gov/?model=C-SHiELD_2021

Updated: May 11, 2021
Lead: Lucas Harris
Operator: Matt Morin
Contributors: Linjiong Zhou, Kai-Yuan Cheng, and the GFDL FV3 Team

Initialized 00Z and 12Z daily from operational GFSv16 analyses
Integrated to 5.25 days
Horizontal Resolution: 13-km global domain (C768), 3-km CONUS nested domain (2160 x 1200 grid cells)
Vertical Resolution: 63 layers, lowest mid-level at ~15 m, model top at 64 Pa
Computational Performance: 139 min/5.25 days using 3024 cores on Gaea C4

2021 FV3 Dynamical Core:

  • Positive-definite Tracer Advection
  • GFDL 2021 Inline Cloud Microphysics with hail on nest
  • Two-way grid nesting with simplified two-way update
  • Re-configured implicit and explicit horizontal diffusion

2021 SHiELD (GFS) Physics Package:

  • TKE-EDMF Planetary Boundary Layer with GFDL 2021 updates
  • NCEP 2017 Scale-Aware SAS (shallow and deep) Convection; deep convection on global domain only
  • RRTM Radiation with bugfix and 2021 GFDL cloud-radiation interaction
  • GFS (orographic and convective) Gravity Wave Drag with GFDL 2018 updates; convective GWD on global domain only

SHiELD Ocean Component:

  • 2019 Mixed-layer Ocean Model

SHiELD (GFS) Land Component:

  • Noah Land Surface Model with GFDL 2020 updates on global domain and Noah-Multiparameterization Land Surface Model with GFDL 2021 updates on nest domain
References:
  • Potvin, C K., J R Carley, A Clark, L J Wicker, P S Skinner, A E Reinhart, B T Gallo, J S Kain, G Romine, E Aligo, K Brewster, D C Dowell, and Lucas Harris, et al., October 2019: Systematic comparison of convection-allowing models during the 2017 NOAA HWT Spring Forecasting Experiment. Weather and Forecasting, 34(5), doi:10.1175/WAF-D-19-0056.1.
  • Harris, Lucas, Shannon L Rees, Matthew J Morin, Linjiong Zhou, and William F Stern, June 2019: Explicit prediction of continental convection in a skillful variable‐resolution global model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11(6), doi:10.1029/2018MS001542.
  • Zhang, C, M Xue, T A Supinie, F Kong, N Snook, K W Thomas, K Brewster, Y Jung, Lucas Harris, and Shian-Jiann Lin, March 2019: How Well Does an FV3-based Model Predict Precipitation at a Convection-Allowing Resolution? Results from CAPS Forecasts for the 2018 NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed with Different Physics Combinations. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(6), doi:10.1029/2018GL081702.

 

2021 T-SHiELD Global-to-Regional Tropical Nested Prediction System

 

T-SHiELD 2021 real-time: https://shield.gfdl.noaa.gov/?model=T-SHiELD_2021

Updated: July 6, 2021
Lead: Kun Gao
Operator: Matt Morin
Contributors: Morris Bender, Lucas Harris, Linjiong Zhou, and the GFDL FV3 Team

Initialized every six hours (00, 06, 12, and 18Z) from operational GFSv16 analyses
Integrated to 7 days
Horizontal Resolution: 13 km uniform global domain (C768r10), 3-km North Atlantic nested domain (2304 x 1152 grid cells)
Vertical Resolution: Coarse grid 63 layers, lowest mid-level at ~15 m, model top at 64 Pa; Vertically-nested grid 75 layers, lowest mid-level at ~10 m, model top at 200 Pa
Computational Performance: 235 min/7 days using 2496 cores on Jet’s kjet

2021 FV3 Dynamical Core:

  • L75 vertical level configuration with enhanced near-surface resolution
  • Hord 6 for horizontal advection of dynamical quantities
  • Hord -5 (positive-definite) for tracers

2021 SHiELD (GFS) Physics Package:

  • GFSv16 TKE-EDMF PBL with constrained vertical diffusion under hurricanes
  • Refined tuning of scale-aware SAS shallow convection to reduce the low-cloud bias (deep convection OFF in the nested region)

SHiELD Ocean Component:

  • 2019 Mixed-layer Ocean Model
  • Improved thermal roughness length parameterization under high winds

SHiELD (GFS) Land Component:

  • High-resolution Noah Land Model with GFDL 2019 updates
References:
  • Gao K., L. Harris, L. Zhou, M. Bender, M. Morin, 2020: On the sensitivity of hurricane intensity and structure to horizontal tracer advection schemes in FV3, in review (JAS)
  • Hazelton, Andrew T., Lucas Harris, and Shian-Jiann Lin, April 2018: Evaluation of Tropical Cyclone Structure Forecasts in a High-Resolution Version of the Multiscale GFDL fvGFS Model. Weather and Forecasting, 33(2), doi:10.1175/WAF-D-17-0140.1.
  • Hazelton, Andrew T., Morris A Bender, Matthew J Morin, Lucas Harris, and Shian-Jiann Lin, October 2018: 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Forecasts From a High-Resolution Version of the GFDL fvGFS Model: Evaluation of Track, Intensity, and Structure. Weather and Forecasting, 33(5), doi:10.1175/WAF-D-18-0056.1.

 

References for Experimental Configurations

 

2020 S-SHiELD Subseasonal-to-Seasonal Prediction System

 

S-SHiELD is a lower-resolution configuration of SHiELD intended for Subseasonal-to-Seasonal (S2S) simulation, intended for extended-range prediction with a focus on extreme weather events. S-SHiELD is currently under development.

 

2021 GFDL X-SHiELD eXperimental GCRM

 

X-SHiELD is an eXperimental Global Cloud Resolving Model (GCRM) run at a sufficiently high global resolution to explicitly simulate individual convection cells. X-SHiELD is GFDL’s contribution to the DYAMOND project, an international intercomparison of GCRMs. We are also collaborating with Vulcan Climate Modeling to accelerate X-SHiELD using emerging computing platforms, and to train a Machine Learning system on the output to create an efficient emulator of the expensive GCRM.

Animations of a previous version of X-SHiELD can be seen on the Mesoscale Dynamics Data Visualizations page.

X-SHiELD:

Lead: Lucas Harris
Contributors: Linjiong Zhou, Kai-Yuan Cheng, Kun Gao, and the GFDL FV3 Team
Special thanks to Daniel Klocke (MPI)

DYAMOND data available at ftp://data1.gfdl.noaa.gov/4/SHiELD/202011/20200120.00Z.C3072.L79x2/history/; see DYAMOND data guide.
PIRE data coming soon.

Initialized 00Z on 20 January 2020 (DYAMOND) and 20 October 2019 (PIRE)
Integrated to 40 days (DYAMOND) and 456 days (PIRE)
Horizontal Resolution: 3.25-km global domain (C3072)
Vertical Resolution: 79 layers, lowest mid-level at ~10 m, model top at 3 hPa
Computational Performance: 78 min/day (standard diagnostics) and 93 min/day (enhanced 3D diagnostics) with 13824 cores on Gaea C4

2021 FV3 Dynamical Core:

  • Positive-definite Tracer Advection
  • GFDL 2021 Inline Cloud Microphysics
  • “Effectively-inviscid” dynamics (unlimited PPM advection for dynamical quantities, eighth-order divergence damping)

2021 SHiELD (GFS) Physics Package:

    • TKE-EDMF Planetary Boundary Layer with GFDL 2021 updates and GFSv16 stratocumulus enhancements
    • NCEP 2017 Scale-Aware SAS (shallow only) convection; no deep convection
  • RRTM Radiation with bugfix and 2021 GFDL cloud-radiation interaction
  • Orographic GFS Gravity Wave Drag with GFDL 2018 updates

SHiELD Ocean Component:

  • 2019 Mixed-layer Ocean Model nudged to EC analyzed SSTs

SHiELD (GFS) Land Component:

  • Noah-MP Land Surface Model with GFDL 2021 updates and EMC high-resolution surface inputs
References:

 

2020 R-SHiELD Regional Domain

 

R-SHiELD is a developmental system for applications of SHiELD on non-global domains. The Environmental Modeling Center of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) has implemented a Limited-Area Modeling (LAM) capability within FV3. This capability permits efficient short-term, high-resolution simulation for problems in which the overhead of a global model is unnecessary or unwanted, including the regional variant of the Hurricane Analysis and Forecast System and the Rapid-Refresh Forecast System. A doubly-periodic domain is also available in FV3 for idealized simulation.

References:
  • Held, Isaac M., Ming Zhao, and Bruce Wyman, January 2007: Dynamic radiative-convective equilibria using GCM column physics. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 64(1), 228-238.
  • Jeevanjee, Nadir, October 2017: Vertical velocity in the gray zone. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9(6), DOI:10.1002/2017MS001059.
  • Anber, Usama, Nadir Jeevanjee, Lucas Harris, and Isaac M Held, July 2018: Sensitivity of Radiative‐Convection Equilibrium to Divergence Damping in GFDL‐FV3 Based Cloud‐Resolving Model Simulations. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10(7), DOI:10.1029/2017MS001225.
  • Wing, Allison A., Levi G Silvers, Ming Zhao, and coauthors, September 2020: Clouds and Convective Self-Aggregation in a Multi-Model Ensemble of Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Simulations. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12(9), DOI:10.1029/2020MS002138.